Tocols and oil content in whole grain, brewer's spent grain, and pearling fractions of malting, feed, and food barley genotypes
Badea, A., Carter, A., Legge, W.G., Swallow, K., Johnston, S.P., Izydorczyk, M.S. (2018). Tocols and oil content in whole grain, brewer's spent grain, and pearling fractions of malting, feed, and food barley genotypes. Cereal Chemistry, [online] 95(6), 779-789. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cche.10093
Plain language summary
Vitamin E is an important dietary component found mainly in plants, and is a group of compounds including tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocols. Potential health benefits of tocols include prevention of certain types of cancer, heart disease, other chronic diseases and enhancement of overall immune system function. Barley, one of the small grains, is of interest for its tocol profile which comprises all eight vitamers (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols). Also, barley oil has been recognized as an oil with potential health benefits. An evaluation of barley grains and the by-products from barley processing such as pearling fractions and brewer's spent grain were conducted for two years. Pearling fractions and brewer's spent grain were identified as being high in tocol and oil content compared to the whole grain. Pearling process is reported as a promising method of generating improved samples, with 5-10% pearling fraction identified as the highest yielding fraction in total tocol and oil content among all samples tested. The barley pearling fractions and brewer's spent grain could potentially be used as novel functional food ingredients or be extracted to yield tocols and/or oils which may be rich in health-promoting tocols.
Background and objectives: Vitamin E is an important dietary component found mainly in plants and is a group of compounds including tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocols. In this study, tocols and oil content was evaluated in whole grain, brewer's spent grain, and pearling fractions from various barley genotypes grown at two sites in 2014, and at three sites in 2015 in Manitoba, Canada. Findings: Mean tocols and oil content was much higher in brewer's spent grain than in whole grain of malting genotypes. Pearling fractions had higher tocols and oil content than whole grain of six distinct feed/food genotypes, with the highest tocols and oil content observed in the 5%–10% pearling fraction. Conclusions: Brewer's spent grain and the 5%–10% pearling fraction could be used as novel functional food ingredients or be valuable sources for extraction of health-promoting tocols and/or oil. Significance and novelty: Using barley processing by-products like brewer's spent grain and pearling fractions in value-added products with beneficial health properties may offer unique economic and waste management opportunities. A relatively large number of malting and feed/food barley genotypes were screened for all eight tocol vitamers and oil content. This study serves as a valuable resource for barley research scientists and the barley industry as a whole.