Quantitative Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance genes, and veterinary antibiotics in surface and ground water following manure application: Influence of tile drainage control
Frey, S.K., Topp, E., Khan, I.U.H., Ball, B.R., Edwards, M., Gottschall, N., Sunohara, M., Lapen, D.R. (2015). Quantitative Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance genes, and veterinary antibiotics in surface and ground water following manure application: Influence of tile drainage control. Science of the Total Environment, [online] 532 138-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.114
This work investigated chlortetracycline, tylosin, and tetracycline (plus transformation products), and DNA-based quantitative Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tetracycline antibiotic resistant genes (. tet(O)) in tile drainage, groundwater, and soil before and following a liquid swine manure (LSM) application on clay loam plots under controlled (CD) and free (FD) tile drainage. Chlortetracycline/tetracycline was strongly bound to manure solids while tylosin dominated in the liquid portion of manure. The chlortetracycline transformation product isochlortetracycline was the most persistent analyte in water. Rhodamine WT (RWT) tracer was mixed with manure and monitored in tile and groundwater. RWT and veterinary antibiotic (VA) concentrations were strongly correlated in water which supported the use of RWT as a surrogate tracer. While CD reduced tile discharge and eliminated application-induced VA movement (via tile) to surface water, total VA mass loading to surface water was not affected by CD. At both CD and FD test plots, the biggest 'flush' of VA mass and highest VA concentrations occurred in response to precipitation received 2. d after application, which strongly influenced the flow abatement capacity of CD on account of highly elevated water levels in field initiating overflow drainage for CD systems (when water level <. 0.3. m below surface). VA concentrations in tile and groundwater became very low within 10. d following application. Both Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) genes were present in groundwater and soil prior to application, and increased thereafter. Unlike the VA compounds, Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) gene loadings in tile drainage were reduced by CD, in relation to FD.