Quantitative and qualitative optimization of allergen extraction from peanut and selected tree nuts. Part 1. Screening of optimal extraction conditions using a D-optimal experimental design
L'Hocine, L., Pitre, M. (2016). Quantitative and qualitative optimization of allergen extraction from peanut and selected tree nuts. Part 1. Screening of optimal extraction conditions using a D-optimal experimental design. Food Chemistry, [online] 194 780-786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.031
A D-optimal design was constructed to optimize allergen extraction efficiency simultaneously from roasted, non-roasted, defatted, and non-defatted almond, hazelnut, peanut, and pistachio flours using three non-denaturing aqueous (phosphate, borate, and carbonate) buffers at various conditions of ionic strength, buffer-to-protein ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction duration. Statistical analysis showed that roasting and non-defatting significantly lowered protein recovery for all nuts. Increasing the temperature and the buffer-to-protein ratio during extraction significantly increased protein recovery, whereas increasing the extraction time had no significant impact. The impact of the three buffers on protein recovery varied significantly among the nuts. Depending on the extraction conditions, protein recovery varied from 19% to 95% for peanut, 31% to 73% for almond, 17% to 64% for pistachio, and 27% to 88% for hazelnut. A modulation by the buffer type and ionic strength of protein and immunoglobuline E binding profiles of extracts was evidenced, where high protein recovery levels did not always correlate with high immunoreactivity.