Processing strategies to decrease acrylamide formation, reducing sugars and free asparagine content in potato chips from three commercial cultivars

Citation

Liyanage, D.W.K., Yevtushenko, D.P., Konschuh, M., Bizimungu, B., Lu, Z.X. (2021). Processing strategies to decrease acrylamide formation, reducing sugars and free asparagine content in potato chips from three commercial cultivars, 119 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107452

Plain language summary

Potato chips are among the highest contributors to the dietary intake of acrylamide, a potent neurotoxin and
likely carcinogen in heat-processed foods. The present study aimed to determine the effects of frying conditions
and additive treatments on reducing sugars, asparagine levels, and acrylamide formation in fried potato chips.
Three commercially important chipping cultivars (Atlantic, Snowden, and Vigor) were tested using different frying times (3, 5, and 7 min) and temperatures (160, 170, 180, and 190°C). Acrylamide formation in chips was
found to be cultivar-specific and increased with increasing frying time and temperature. The acrylamide levels
were significantly lower in chips processed at high temperatures for short frying times than in those processed
at low temperatures for long frying times. In all cultivars, acrylamide synthesis was accompanied by significant
decreases in the levels of reducing sugars and asparagine. The cultivar exhibiting the lowest acrylamide levels
in the processed potato chips was Snowden, while the conditions most conducive to acrylamide formation in all
cultivars were frying at 190°C for 7 min. Using a 7 min frying time, decreasing the frying temperature from 190
to 160 °C mitigated the acrylamide formation in potato chips processed from Atlantic, Snowden and Vigor by 84, 67, and 78%, respectively. We also examined the effects of additives, such as 1% acetic acid, 1% citric acid, 0.1 M sodium chloride, 0.1 M calcium chloride, 0.5% ascorbic acid, or 1 M glycine, during the blanching of potato slices prior to frying. Blanching in distilled water led to the greatest decreases (19-59%) in acrylamide formation in all cultivars. Our findings provide the basis for new processing strategies to mitigate acrylamide formation and improve the quality of chips from these, and possibly other, potato cultivars.

Abstract

© 2020 Potato chips are among the highest contributors to the dietary intake of acrylamide, a potent neurotoxin and likely carcinogen in heat-processed foods. The present study aimed to determine the effects of frying conditions and additive treatments on reducing sugars, asparagine levels, and acrylamide formation in fried potato chips. Three commercially important chipping cultivars (Atlantic, Snowden, and Vigor) were tested using different frying times (3, 5, and 7 min) and temperatures (160, 170, 180, and 190 °C). Acrylamide formation in chips was found to be cultivar-specific and increased with increasing frying time and temperature. The acrylamide levels were significantly lower in chips processed at high temperatures for short frying times than in those processed at low temperatures for long frying times. In all cultivars, acrylamide synthesis was accompanied by significant decreases in the levels of reducing sugars and asparagine. The cultivar exhibiting the lowest acrylamide levels in the processed potato chips was Snowden, while the conditions most conducive to acrylamide formation in all cultivars were frying at 190 °C for 7 min. Using a 7 min frying time, decreasing the frying temperature from 190 to 160 °C mitigated the acrylamide formation in potato chips processed from Atlantic, Snowden and Vigor by 84, 67, and 78%, respectively. We also examined the effects of additives, such as 1% acetic acid, 1% citric acid, 0.1 M sodium chloride, 0.1 M calcium chloride, 0.5% ascorbic acid, or 1 M L-glycine, during the blanching of potato slices prior to frying. Blanching in distilled water led to the greatest decreases (19–59%) in acrylamide formation in all cultivars. Our findings provide the basis for new processing strategies to mitigate acrylamide formation and improve the quality of chips from these, and possibly other, potato cultivars.