Incorporating yellow peas into soup, muffins and chili significantly reduces post-prandial glycaemic response in health adults.
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Choosing foods that produce a low post-prandial glycaemic response may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies have shown that replacing a portion of a high starch food (i.e. white rice and instant potato) with peas limits the rise in blood sugar after a meal by 29-36%. The objective of this study was to compare the post-prandial glucose response following consumption of yellow peas in different food matrices (soup, muffins, chili) to a control (potato for soup, wheat for muffins, rice for chili). Three separate randomized controlled crossover trials were conducted at the I.H. Asper Research Institute in Winnipeg, MB. Healthy adults completed the soup (n=24) muffin (n=24) and chili (n=21) trials. Each participant attended three 2.5-hour study visits separated by washout periods of 3-14 days. Test foods were made from a base recipe to which 25g available carbohydrates were added from whole yellow peas, split yellow peas or control (instant potato for soup, wheat flour for muffins, white rice for chili). Fasting and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minute post-prandial capillary blood samples were collected for analysis of blood glucose. The effect of treatment on incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose was assessed using analysis of covariance with treatment, order of treatment and their interaction included in the model. Differences among treatments were determined using least square means adjusted using the Tukey option. Compared to soup made with potato, glucose iAUC was significantly decreased (p<.0001) by 46-49% when participants ate soup containing peas. Similar results were seen in the muffin and chili trials, with iAUC for glucose significantly decreased (p<.0001 and p=0.004, respectively) by 23-26% after eating muffins containing peas and 31-39% after eating chili made with peas compared to their respective controls. There was no difference in glucose iAUC between whole yellow peas and split yellow peas in any of the trials. These results demonstrate that a physiological benefit from peas can be achieved from 3 different foods and supports a function health claim related to the reduction in post-prandial glycaemic response for yellow peas. (Funded by Pulse Canada Cluster).