A graphene-based label-free voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of the egg allergen ovalbumin
Eissa, S., L'Hocine, L., Siaj, M., Zourob, M. (2013). A graphene-based label-free voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of the egg allergen ovalbumin. Analyst, [online] 138(15), 4378-4384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3an36883a
A graphene-based label-free voltammetric immunosensor for the sensitive detection of the egg white allergen ovalbumin has been developed. Graphene-modified screen printed carbon electrodes have been covalently functionalized using electrochemical reduction of in situ generated aryl diazonium salt forming a carboxyphenyl film on the graphene surface. The blocking property of the carboxyphenyl film grafted on to the graphene electrodes using different cyclic voltammetry cycles has been characterized using differential pulse voltammetry in [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- solution. Then, the terminal carboxylic groups on the graphene surface were activated using EDC/NHS and used to immobilize the ovalbumin antibody and construct the immunosensor. The fabrication steps of the immunosensor have also been characterized using differential pulse voltammetry. The decrease in the [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- reduction peak current after the immunochemical reaction with ovalbumin has been used for the ovalbumin detection. The developed immunosensor has been used for ovalbumin detection in the concentration range of 1 pg mL-1 to 0.5 μg mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.83 pg mL-1 in PBS buffer. The food matrix effect studied with ovalbumin spiked cake extract showed a good percentage of recovery, indicating the possible applicability of the developed immunosensor in real food samples. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.