Grapevine trunk diseases in British Columbia: Incidence and characterization of the fungal pathogens associated with esca and Petri diseases of grapevine
Úrbez-Torres, J.R., Haag, P., Bowen, P., O'Gorman, D.T. (2013). Grapevine trunk diseases in British Columbia: Incidence and characterization of the fungal pathogens associated with esca and Petri diseases of grapevine, 98(4), 469-482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-13-0523-RE
Esca and Petri disease are two economically important grapevine diseases worldwide. This study reports for the first time the occurrence of both diseases on grapevines in British Columbia (BC) and subsequently in Canada. Visual assessment of 55,699 vines in 118 vineyards revealed a low incidence of esca with only 104 (0.2%) vines showing foliar symptoms. Young vine decline (YVD) was observed in 1,910 (7.8%) of 24,487 monitored young vines and in 52 (8%) of 654 young vines used as re-plants in mature vineyards. In 8 of 51 monitored young vineyards, YVD-affected vines ranged between 15 and 55%. Morphological studies along with DNA analyses of the ITS1- 5.8S-ITS2, and part of the β-tubulin, actin, and translation elongation factor 1-α gene regions, allowed us to identify Cadophora luteoolivacea, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium iranianum, Togninia fraxinopennsylvanica, Togninia minima, and the novel species Phaeoacremonium canadense and Phaeoacremonium roseum from esca and Petri disease infected vines in BC. This study includes for the first time the EF1-α DNA marker in Phaeoacremonium spp. delineation. Pathogenicity studies showed all seven fungi to cause vascular symptoms similar to those observed in esca and Petri disease infected vines. Additionally, the "tiger-stripes" foliar symptom of esca was successfully reproduced when healthy potted vines were inoculated with BC isolates of Pa. chlamydospora, Pm. canadense, Pm. iranianum, T. fraxinopennsylvanica, and T. minima.