Genome-wide identification and localization of chalcone synthase family in soybean (Glycine max [L]Merr)
Anguraj Vadivel, A.K., Krysiak, K., Tian, G., Dhaubhadel, S. (2018). Genome-wide identification and localization of chalcone synthase family in soybean (Glycine max [L]Merr). BMC Plant Biology, [online] 18(1), http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-018-1569-x
Plain language summary
Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the first committed enzyme involved in (iso)flavonoid pathway that leads to the production of a plethora of different specialized metabolites in plants. Here, we have identified that soybean contains 14 GmCHS that are expressed differently in different plant tissues leading to the production of specific metabolites in those tissues.
Background: Soybean is a paleopolyploid that has undergone two whole genome duplication events. Gene duplication is a type of genomic change that can lead to novel functions of pre-existing genes. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the first committed step in (iso)flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. Results: Here we performed a genome-wide search of CHS genes in soybean, and identified 21 GmCHS loci containing 14 unique GmCHS (GmCHS1-GmCHS14) that included 5 newly identified GmCHSs (GmCHS10-GmCHS14). Furthermore, 3 copies of GmCHS3 and 2 copies of GmCHS4 were found in soybean. Analysis of gene structure of GmCHSs revealed the presence of a single intron in protein-coding regions except for GmCHS12 that contained 3 introns. Even though GmCHS genes are located on 8 different chromosomes, a large number of these genes are present on chromosome 8 where they form 3 distinct clusters. Expression analysis of GmCHS genes revealed tissue-specific expression pattern, and that some GmCHS isoforms localize in the cytoplasm and the nucleus while other isoforms are restricted to cytoplasm only. Conclusion: Overall, we have identified 21 GmCHS loci with 14 unique GmCHS genes in the soybean genome. Their gene structures and genomic organization together with the spatio-temporal expression and protein localization suggest their importance in the production of downstream metabolites such as (iso)flavonoids and their derived phytoalexins.