Composition, morphology, molecular structure, and physicochemical properties of starches from newly released chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars grown in Canada
Hughes, T., Hoover, R., Liu, Q., Donner, E., Chibbar, R., Jaiswal, S. (2009). Composition, morphology, molecular structure, and physicochemical properties of starches from newly released chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars grown in Canada. Food Research International, [online] 42(5-6), 627-635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.01.008
Starch from four cultivars (CDC Xena, CDC Flip 97-133C, CDC 418-59, CDC ICC 12512-9) of chickpea (cicer arietinum L.) grown in Saskatchewan, Canada was isolated and variability in composition, morphology, molecular structure and physicochemical properties was evaluated. The yield of starch was in the range 32.0-36.8% on a whole seed basis. The starch granules were oval to spherical with smooth surfaces. The granule size distribution ranged from 5 to 35 μm. The free lipid, bound lipid, total amylose and the amount of amylose complexed with native starch lipids ranged from 0.04% to 0.08%, 0.21% to 0.46%, 33.9% to 40.2% and 9.1% to 15.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in branch chain length distribution of amylopectin among the starches. The X-ray pattern was of the C-type. The relative crystallinity was in the range 31.3-34.4%. Swelling factor and amylose leaching in the temperature range 50-90 °C ranged from 1.6% to 25.9% and 8.61% to 36.1%, respectively. All four starches exhibited nearly identical gelatinization temperatures. However, the enthalpy of gelatinization was in the range 11.2-13.1 J/g, respectively. The starches differed significantly with respect to peak viscosity (3223-4174 cp), breakdown viscosity (394-1308 cp) and set-back (3110-4281 cp). Starches were hydrolyzed by acid to nearly the same extent. The amount of rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch contents ranged from 10.9% to 15.7%, 48.5% to 60.2% and 24.1% to 40.6%, respectively. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.