The bovine metabolome


Foroutan, A., Fitzsimmons, C., Mandal, R., Piri‐moghadam, H., Zheng, J., Guo, A., Li, C., Guan, L.L., Wishart, D.S. (2020). The bovine metabolome. Metabolites, [online] 10(6), 1-26.

Plain language summary

Six bovine tissues and biofluids were examined for a comprehensive review of bovine metabolites. These metabolites were verified against other publications, and used to create a beginning for The Bovine Metabolome Database. This database will be used by other researchers working in bovine, around the world.


From an animal health perspective, relatively little is known about the typical or healthy ranges of concentrations for many metabolites in bovine biofluids and tissues. Here, we describe the results of a comprehensive, quantitative metabolomic characterization of six bovine biofluids and tissues, including serum, ruminal fluid, liver, Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle, semimembranosus (SM) muscle, and testis tissues. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP–MS), we were able to identify and quantify more than 145 metabolites in each of these biofluids/tissues. Combining these results with previous work done by our team on other bovine biofluids, as well as previously published literature values for other bovine tissues and biofluids, we were able to generate quantitative reference concentration data for 2100 unique metabolites across five different bovine biofluids and seven different tissues. These experimental data were combined with computer‐aided, genome‐scale metabolite inference techniques to add another 48,628 unique metabolites that are biochemically expected to be in bovine tissues or biofluids. Altogether, 51,801 unique metabolites were identified in this study. Detailed information on these 51,801 unique metabolites has been placed in a publicly available database called the Bovine Metabolome Database.

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