Biosolids applied to agricultural land: Influence on structural and functional endpoints of soil fauna on a short- and long-term scale
Coors, A., Edwards, M., Lorenz, P., Römbke, J., Schmelz, R.M., Topp, E., Waszak, K., Wilkes, G., Lapen, D.R. (2016). Biosolids applied to agricultural land: Influence on structural and functional endpoints of soil fauna on a short- and long-term scale. Science of the Total Environment, [online] 562 312-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.226
Biosolids have well-documented crop and soil benefits similar to other sources of organic amendment, but there is environmental concern due to biosolids-associated pollutants. The present study investigated two field sites that had received biosolids at commercial-scale rates in parallel to associated field sections which were managed similarly but without receiving biosolids (controls). The investigated endpoints were abundance and diversity of soil organisms (nematodes, enchytraeids and earthworms) and soil fauna feeding activity as measured by the bait lamina assay. Repeated sampling of one of the field sites following the only biosolids application demonstrated an enrichment effect typical for organic amendments, which was mostly exhausted after 44 months. After an initial suppression, the proportion of free-living plant-parasitic nematodes tended to increase in the biosolids-amended soil over time. Yet, none of the endpoints at this site indicated significant negative effects resulting from the biosolids until 44 months post application. In contrast to the repeatedly tilled first field site, the second one was left fallow after three biosolids applications, and was sampled 96 months post last application. It was only at this field site that potential evidence for a long-term impact of biosolids was detected with regard to two endpoints: earthworm abundance and structure of the nematode assemblage. Agricultural management and correlation with abiotic soil parameters explained the observed difference in earthworm abundance. Yet, the development of a highly structured and mature nematode assemblage at the control but not at the biosolids-amended section of this fallow field could not be explained by such correlations nor by soil metal concentrations. Overall, the present study found only weak evidence for negative long-term impacts of biosolids applied at commercial rates on soil fauna. High-level community parameters such as the nematode structure index (SI) appeared more suitable to detect deleterious effects on soil fauna than simple abundance measurements.