Association of asparagine concentration in wheat with cultivar, location, fertilizer, and their interaction
Malunga, L.N., Ames, N., Khorshidi, A.S., Thandapilly, S.J., Yan, W., Dyck, A., Waterer, J., Malcolmson, L., Cuthbert, R., Sopiwnyk, E., Scanlon, M.G. (2021). Association of asparagine concentration in wheat with cultivar, location, fertilizer, and their interaction. Food Chemistry, [online] 344 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128630
Plain language summary
Acrylamide is a toxic compound that can form in food if the amino acid asparagine (part of protein) is present and reacts with free sugars during high heat processing such as baking or frying. The need to produce Canadian wheat with low asparagine concentration is important as a measure to reduce acrylamide formation in wheat-based products. This study compared the asparagine content in eight wheat varieties grown in two locations under four fertilizer treatments consisting of two nitrogen rates (90 or 120 lbs/acre) with or without 15 lbs of sulphur per acre. The asparagine concentration of the harvested wheat was significantly affected by variety, growing location, and their interaction but not fertilizer treatment. Location and variety were responsible for 80% and 14% of the variation in asparagine content, respectively. Some wheat varieties were not affected by location and maintained their “low asparagine” trait no matter where they were grown. Thus, breeding strategies should aim to identify the types of wheat that are consistently low in asparagine across multiple growing environments.
The need to produce wheat with low asparagine concentration is of great importance as a measure to mitigate acrylamide concentration in wheat-based products. The association of asparagine concentration in Canadian bread wheat with cultivar, growing location, fertilizer and their interaction were investigated. Wheat cultivars (8) were grown in 2 locations under 4 fertilizer treatments in triplicate (which consisted of two nitrogen rates (90 or 120 lbs/acre) with or without 15 lbs sulphur per acre). The asparagine concentration ranged from 168.9 to 1050 µg/g and was significantly affected by cultivar, location, and their interaction but not fertilizer treatment. Location and cultivar were responsible for 80% and 14% of the variation, respectively. Some cultivars were not affected by location and maintained their low asparagine accumulation trait. Thus, breeding strategies should aim to identify cultivars that are low asparagine accumulating and are stable across different growing environments.