Aeration and Foam Control in Baker's Yeast Production: Mapping Patents
Gélinas, P. (2016). Aeration and Foam Control in Baker's Yeast Production: Mapping Patents. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, [online] 15(2), 371-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12188
A key ingredient in the baking industry, baker's yeast must be produced under strict controlled conditions. High yields of baker's yeast cannot be attained unless a huge quantity of air is injected into fermentation vats. This review of 245 patent specifications shows that inventors have paid much attention to the distribution of fine air bubbles in order to optimize oxygen transfer to the yeast cells. Technical solutions to reduce energy costs associated with aeration are also proposed. Intense aeration caused foaming problems, so mechanical destruction of foam was first proposed until inventions on specific chemical antifoams were patented. In recent years, the development of cheaper and more efficient foam control techniques has remained an issue. Aeration during yeast growth in tanks impairs its fermentative activity in anaerobic bread dough. Since the beginning of the 20th century, massive adoption of air-grown fed-batch baker's yeast probably encouraged sugar addition to stimulate yeast gassing activity in pan bread characterized by high loaf volume, especially those prepared under short dough fermentation conditions.