Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary amino acid metabolism
Larsen, M., Galindo, C., Ouellet, D.R., Maxin, G., Kristensen, N.B., Lapierre, H. (2015). Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary amino acid metabolism, 98(11), 7944-7961. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-9439
Nine Holstein cows with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used in a generalized randomized incomplete block design with repeated measures to study the effect of increased early postpartum AA supply on splanchnic and mammary AA metabolism. At calving, cows were blocked according to parity (second and third or greater) and allocated to 2 treatments: abomasal infusion of water (CTRL; n. =. 4) or free AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n. =. 5) in addition to a basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half of the maximal dose at the calving day (1 d in milk; DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226. g/d until 29 DIM. On 5, 15, and 29 DIM, 6 sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary blood were taken at 45-min intervals. Over the whole period, increasing AA supply increased milk (+7.8 ± 1.3. kg/d) and milk protein yields (+220 ± 65. g/d) substantially. The increased milk yield was not supported by greater dry matter intake (DMI) as, overall, DMI decreased with AA-CN (-1.6 ± 0.6. kg/d). Arterial concentrations of essential AA were greater for AA-CN compared with CTRL. The net portal-drained viscera (PDV) release of His, Met, and Phe was greater for AA-CN compared with CTRL, and the net PDV recovery of these infused AA ranged from 72 to 102% once changes in DMI were accounted for. The hepatic removal of these AA was increased equivalently to the increased net PDV release, resulting in an unaltered net splanchnic release. The net PDV release of Ile, Leu, Val, and Lys tended to be greater for AA-CN, and the net PDV recovery of these infused AA ranged from 69 to 73%, indicating increased PDV metabolism with AA-CN. The fractional hepatic removal of these AA did not differ from zero and was unaffected by the increased supply. Consequently, the splanchnic release of these AA was approximately equivalent to their net PDV release for both CTRL and AA-CN. Overall, greater early postpartum AA supply increased milk and milk protein yields substantially based on increased mammary AA uptake. The PDV metabolism of branched-chain AA and Lys were increased, whereas it seemed to be unaffected for other essential AA when the intestinal AA supply was increased. On a net basis, the liver removed more group 1 AA (His, Met, Phe, and Trp) for anabolism and catabolism when the early postpartum AA supply was increased. Thus, increasing the postpartum AA supply increased splanchnic and mammary consumption of AA; hence, the protein deficiency persisted.