Robie Macdonald

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Current research and/or projects

Dr. Macdonald directs interdisciplinary programs to study the environmental pathways of contaminants including their delivery, transport, and elimination from aquatic systems. A variety of settings are studied including Arctic shelves and basins, British Columbia fjords, the Strait of Georgia, and lakes in the Fraser River basin. He determines the behaviour of contaminants in the context of natural systems bringing to bear such tools as water-mass analysis, transient and steady state tracers, stable isotope analyses (oxygen, carbon and lead), the determination of particle fluxes and sedimentation rates, multivariate statistics and modeling. Most of the major contaminant groups have been studied including PAH, metals, radionuclides, organochlorines, and other synthetic organic compounds like the nonylphenol ethoxylates.

Dr. Macdonald focuses on site-specific contaminant sources including chlor-alkali plants, pulp mills, mine-tailing disposal and municipal outfalls, as well as broader contaminant issues such as long-range atmospheric transport of semi-volatile contaminants to the Arctic Ocean and Georgia Basin, and the potential impacts of oil exploration on Canada's western Arctic shelves. Contaminants are studied according to how they enter and leave natural water bodies and how they impinge on natural biogeochemical cycles. Multivariate statistical techniques as well as dated sediment cores are used to distinguish between anthropogenic contaminants and their natural counterparts. Often, more than one anthropogenic source contributes to contaminant loadings, in which case the same techniques are used to work out the relative strength of each source. Insight and data developed through these studies is incorporated into national and international environmental assessments.

Research and/or project statements

Dr. Macdonald directs interdisciplinary programs to study the environmental pathways of contaminants including their delivery, transport, and elimination from aquatic systems. A variety of settings are studied including Arctic shelves and basins, British Columbia fjords, the Strait of Georgia, and lakes in the Fraser River basin. He determines the behaviour of contaminants in the context of natural systems bringing to bear such tools as water-mass analysis, transient and steady state tracers, stable isotope analyses (oxygen, carbon and lead), the determination of particle fluxes and sedimentation rates, multivariate statistics and modeling. Most of the major contaminant groups have been studied including PAH, metals, radionuclides, organochlorines, and other synthetic organic compounds like the nonylphenol ethoxylates. Dr. Macdonald focuses on site-specific contaminant sources including chlor-alkali plants, pulp mills, mine-tailing disposal and municipal outfalls, as well as broader contaminant issues such as long-range atmospheric transport of semi-volatile contaminants to the Arctic Ocean and Georgia Basin, and the potential impacts of oil exploration on Canada's western Arctic shelves. Contaminants are studied according to how they enter and leave natural water bodies and how they impinge on natural biogeochemical cycles. Multivariate statistical techniques as well as dated sediment cores are used to distinguish between anthropogenic contaminants and their natural counterparts. Often, more than one anthropogenic source contributes to contaminant loadings, in which case the same techniques are used to work out the relative strength of each source. Insight and data developed through these studies is incorporated into national and international environmental assessments.

Professional activities / interests

Professor at:

  • University of Manitoba
  • University of Victoria

Key publications

  1. Carrie, J., Stern, G.A., Sanei, H., Macdonald, R.W., Outridge, P. and Wang, F., 2010. Increasing contaminant burdens in an Arctic fish, burbut (Lota lota), in a warming climate. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(1): 316-322.
  2. Kuzyk, Z.A., Macdonald, R.W., Johannessen, S.C. and Stern, G.A., 2010. Biogeochemical controls on PCB deposition in Hudson Bay. Environmental Science and Technology, in press.
  3. Kuzyk, Z.A., Macdonald, R.W., Tremblay, J.-É. and Stern, G.A., 2010. Elemental and stable isotopic constraints on river influence and patterns of nitrogen cycling and biological productivity in Hudson Bay. Continental Shelf Research, 30(2): 163-176.
  4. Lavoie, D., Denman, K.L. and Macdonald, R.W., 2010. Effects of future climate change on primary productivity and export fluxes in the Beaufort Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115: C04018.
  5. Macdonald, R.W. and Loseto, L.L., 2010. Are Arctic Ocean ecosystems exceptionally vulnerable to global emissions of mercury? A call for emphasized research on methylation and the consequences of climate change. Environmental Chemistry, 7: 133-138.
  6. Pospelova, V., Esenkulova, S., Johannessen, S.C., O’Brien, M.C. and Macdonald, R.W., 2010. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst production, composition and flux from 1996 to 1998 in the central Strait of Georgia (BC, Canada): a sediment trap study. Marine Micropaleontology in press.
  7. Pućko, M., Stern, G.A., Barber, D.G., Macdonald, R.W. and Rosenberg, B., 2010. The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) System Study: the importance of brine processes for α- and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) accumulation/rejection in the sea ice. Atmosphere-Ocean, in press.
  8. Belicka, L.L., Macdonald, R.W. and Harvey, H.R., 2009. Trace element and molecular markers of organic carbon dynamics along a shelf-basin continuum in sediments of the western Arctic Ocean. Marine Chemistry, 115: 72-85.
  9. Brimble, S.K., Foster, K.L., Mallory, M.L., Macdonald, R.W., Smol, J.P. and Blais, J.M., 2009. High Arctic ponds receiving bio-transported nutrients from a nearby seabird colony are also subject to potentially toxic loadings of As, Cd and Zn. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 28(11): 2426-2433.
  10. Granskog, M.A., Macdonald, R.W., Kuzyk, Z.A., Senneville, S., Mundy, C.-J., Barber, D.G., Stern, G.A. and Saucier, F., 2009. The coastal conduit in southwestern Hudson Bay (Canada) in summer: Rapid transit of freshwater and significant loss of colored dissolved organic matter. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114: C08012.
  11. Irvine, J.R., Macdonald, R.W., Brown, R.J., Godbout, L., Reist, J.D. and Carmack, E.C., 2009. Beyond BASIS (Bering-Aleutian Salmon International Surveys) - salmon in the Arctic. North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission Bulletin, 5: 39-50.
  12. Johannessen, S.C. and Macdonald, R.W., 2009. Effects of local and global change on an inland sea: the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Climate Research, 40: 1-21.
  13. Krümmel, E.M. et al. 2009. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments. Science of the Total Environment. 407(6):1977-1989.
  14. Kuzyk, Z.A., Macdonald, R.W., Johannessen, S.C., Gobeil, C. and Stern, G.A., 2009. Towards a sediment and organic carbon budget for Hudson Bay. Marine Geology, 264: 190-208.
  15. Lavoie, D., Denman, K.L. and Macdonald, R.W. 2009. Primary productivity and export fluxes on the Canadian shelf of the Beaufort Sea: a modelling study. Journal of Marine Systems. 75:17-32.
  16. Macdonald, R.W., Forsland, V., Withler, R.E., Patterson, D.A. and Demsky, A. 2009. The use of stable oxygen isotope composition in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) body fluid to determine whether a fish has been caught in fresh water. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 29:560-569.
  17. McGuire, A.D., Anderson, L.G., Christensen, T.R., Dallimore, S., Guo, L., Hayes, D.J., Heimann, M., Lorenson, T.D., Macdonald, R.W. and Roulet, N., 2009. Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change. Ecological Monographs, 79(4): 523-555.
  18. Michelutti, N., Liu, H., Smol, J. P., Kimpe, L. E., Keatley, B. E., Mallory, M. L., Macdonald, R. W., Douglas, M. S. V. and Blais, J. M., 2009. Accelerated delivery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recent sediments near a large seabird colony in Arctic Canada. Environmental Pollution. (in press)
  19. Ross, P.S., Couillard, C.M., Ikonomou, M.G., Johannessen, S.C., Lebeuf, M., Macdonald, R.W. and Tomy, G. 2009. Large and growing environmental reservoirs of deca-BDE present an emerging health risk for fish and marine mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58:7-10. (doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.09.002
  20. Smith, J. N., Lee, K., Gobeil, C. and Macdonald, R. W., 2009. Natural Rates of Sediment Containment of PAH, PCB and Metal Inventories in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia. Science of the Total Environment. 407: 5858-4869.
  21. Yunker, M. B., Macdonald, R. W. and Snowdon, L. R., 2009. Glacial to post-glacial transformation of organic input pathways in Arctic Ocean basins. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. ( in press)
  22. Burd, B., Macdonald, R.W., Johannessen, S.C. and van Roodselaar, A. 2008. Responses of subtidal benthos of the Strait of Georgia to ambient sediment conditions and natural and anthropogenic depositions. Marine Environmental Research. 66.S62:S69. (doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.08.009).
  23. Burd, B., Macdonald, R.W., van Roodselaar, A. and Wright, C.A. 2008. Axinopsida serricata shell encrustation as a geochemical indicator of organic enrichment conditions in sediments in the southern Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Marine Environmental Research. 66:S101-S111. (doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.08.008).
  24. Carmack, E.C. and Macdonald, R.W. 2008. Water and ice related phenomena in the coastal region of the Beaufort Sea: some parallels between native experience and western science. Arctic. 61(3):265-280.
  25. Chapman, P.M. et al., 2008. Sewage treatment wasted - The Victoria (BC, Canada) example. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56: 1815-1816, 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.05.015
  26. Couillard, CM, RW Macdonald, SC Courtenay and V P Palace. 2008. Interactions between toxic chemicals and other environmental factors affecting the risk of impacts on aquatic organisms: A review with a Canadian perspective – Interactions affecting exposure. Environmental Reviews. 16:1-17 (doi:10.1139/A07-007).
  27. Couillard CM, Courtenay SC and RW Macdonald. 2008. Interactions between toxic chemicals and other environmental factors affecting the risk of impacts on aquatic organisms: A review with a Canadian perspective - Interactions affecting vulnerability. Environmental Reviews. 16:19-44. (doi:101139/A07-008).
  28. Hare, A., Stern, G.A., Macdonald, R.W., Kuzyk, Z.A. and Wang, F. 2008. Contemporary and pre-industrial mass budgets of mercury in the Hudson Bay marine system: The role of lateral sediment recycling transport. Science of the Total Environment. 406:190-204. doi:10.1016/j.stotenv.2008.07.033.
  29. Johannessen, S.C. et al. 2008. Joined by geochemistry, divided by history: PCBs and PBDEs in Strait of Georgia sediments. Marine Environmental Research. 66:S112-S120. (doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.03.003).
  30. Johannessen, S.C., Macdonald, R.W., Burd, B. and van Roodselaar, A. 2008. Biogeochemical cycling in the Strait of Georgia. Marine Environmental Research. 66:S1-S2. (doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.10.001).
  31. Johannessen, S.C., Potentier, G., Wright, C.A., Masson, D. and Macdonald, R.W. 2008. Water column organic carbon in a Pacific marginal sea (Strait of Georgia, Canada). Marine Environmental Research. 66:S49-S62. (doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.07.008).
  32. Kuzyk, Z.A., R.W. Macdonald, M.A. Granskog, R.K. Scharien, R.J. Galley, C. Michel, D. Barber and G. Stern, 2008. Sea ice, hydrological, and biological processes in the Churchill River estuary region, Hudson Bay. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science. 77(3):369-384. (doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2007.09.030).
  33. Kuzyk, Z.A., Goni, M.A., Stern, G.A. and Macdonald, R.W. 2008. Sources, pathways and sinks of particulate organic matter in Hudson Bay: evidence from lignin distributions. Marine Chemistry. 112:215-229. 10.1016/j.marchem.2008.08.001.
  34. Macdonald, R.W., Johannessen, S.C., Gobeil, C., Wright, C.A., Burd, B., van Roodselaar, A. and Pedersen, T.F. 2008. Sediment redox tracers in Strait of Georgia sediments – can they inform us of the loadings of organic carbon from municipal wastewater? Marine Environmental Research. 66:S87-S100. (doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.08.001).
  35. Macdonald, R.W. 2008. Consequences of warming in the Arctic with reference to northern security. In: J. Dhanapala, J. Harriss and J. Simons [Eds]. Arctic Security in the 21st Century. School for International Studies, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, pp. 20-26.
  36. Macdonald, R.W., Wang, F., Stern, G.A. and Outridge, P.M. 2008. The overlooked role of the ocean in mercury cycling in the Arctic. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 56: 63-65. (doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.09.003).
  37. Macdonald, R.W. 2008. Are contaminants in the Arctic Ocean a dead issue? Meridian, Spring/Summer:1-6. (Popular Article)
  38. Michelutti, N. et al. 2008. Seabird-driven shifts in Arctic pond ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276:591-596. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1103).
  39. Outridge, P.M., Macdonald, R.W., Wang, F., Stern, G.A. and Dastoor, A.P., 2008. A mass balance inventory of mercury in the Arctic Ocean. Environmental Chemistry. 5:89-111 (doi: 10.1071/EN08002).
  40. Bidleman TF, Kylin H, Jantunen LM, Helm PA, Macdonald RW, 2007. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the Canadian Archipelago. 1. Spatial distribution and pathways of alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCHs in surface water. Environmental Science and Technology. 41:2688-2695.
  41. Blais JM, Macdonald RW, Mackay D, Webster E, Harvey C, Smol JP, 2007. Biologically mediated transport of contaminants to aquatic systems. Environmental Science and Technology. 41:1075-1084.
  42. Drenzek NJ, Montluçon DB, Yunker MB, Macdonald RW, Eglinton TI, 2007. Constraints on the origin of sedimentary organic carbon in the Beaufort Sea from coupled molecular 13C and 14C measurements. Marine Chemistry. 103:146-162.
  43. Granskog MA, Macdonald RW, Mundy CJ, Barber DG, 2007. Distribution, characteristics and potential impacts of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Hudson Strait and the Hudson Bay. Continental Shelf Research. 27:2032-2050. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2007.05.001.
  44. Gregory-Eaves I, Demers MJ, Kimpe L, Krümmel EM, Macdonald RW, Finney BP, Blais JM, 2007. Tracing salmon-derived nutrients and contaminants in freshwater food webs across a pronounced spawner density gradient. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 26:1100-1108.
  45. Guo L, Ping C-L, Macdonald RW, 2007. Mobilization of organic carbon from arctic permafrost to fluvial systems in a changing climate. Geophysical Research Letters. 34. L13603. doi:10.1029/2007GL030689
  46. Hickie, BE, Ross, PS, Macdonald, RW and Ford JKB, 2007. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) face protracted health risks associated with lifetime exposure to PCBs. Environmental Science and Technology. 41(18):6613-6619. (doi:10.1021/es0702519).
  47. Leitch, D.R., J. Carrie, D. Lean, R.W. Macdonald, G.A. Stern and F. Wang. 2007. The delivery of mercury to the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean by the Mackenzie River. Science of the Total Environment. 373:178-195. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.10.041.
  48. Schiedek, D., B. Sundelin, J.W. Readman and R.W. Macdonald, 2007. Interactions between climate change and contaminants. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 54:1845-1856. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.09.020.
  49. Carmack EC, Barber D, Christensen J, Macdonald RW, B. R, Sakshaug E, 2006. Climate variability and physical forcing of the food webs and the carbon budget on panarctic shelves. Progress in Oceanography. 71:145-181.
  50. Guo L, Macdonald RW, 2006. Source and transport of terrigenous organic matter in the upper Yukon River: evidence from isotope ( 13C, 14C and 15N) composition of dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 20:GB2011. doi:10.1029/2005GB002593.
  51. Johannessen, S.C., D. Masson and R.W. Macdonald. 2006. Distribution and cycling of suspended particles inferred from transmissivity in the Strait of Georgia, Haro Strait and Juan de Fuca Strait. Atmosphere-Ocean. 44(1):17-27.
  52. Macdonald, R.W. 2006. Contaminants, global change and cold regimes. In: Jon B. Orbaek (Author), Jon B. Orbaek, Roland Kallenborn, Ingunn Tombre, Else N. Hegseth, Stig Falk-Petersen, Alf H. Hoel [Eds]. Arctic-alpine ecosystems and people in a changing environment. Berlin. Spinger-Verlag. 462pp.
  53. Macdonald, R.W. and Yu Y. 2006. The Mackenzie Estuary of the Arctic Ocean. In: Wangersky P.J. [Ed]. Water Pollution: Estuaries. 5. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. 305 pp.
  54. O'Brien M.C., Macdonald R.W., Melling H. and K. Iseki. 2006. Geochemistry and physical forcing of sediment transport and deposition in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Continental Shelf Research. 26(1):41-81.
  55. Williams, W.J., E.C. Carmack, K. Shimada, H. Melling, K. Aagaard, R.W. Macdonald and R.G. Ingram. 2006. Joint effects of wind and ice motion in forcing upwelling in Mackenzie Trough, Beaufort Sea. Continental Shelf Research 26:2352-2366. doi: 10.1016/jcsr.2006.06.012.
  56. Wrona FJ, Prowse TD, Reist JD, Hobbie JE, Levesque LMJ, Macdonald RW, Vincent WF, 2006. Effects of ultraviolet radiation and contaminant-related stressors on Arctic freshwater ecosystems. Ambio. 35:388-401.
  57. Bidleman, T.F., R.W. Macdonald and J.P. Stow. 2005. Sources, occurrences, trends and pathways of contaminants in the arctic physical environment: Introduction to the special issue. Science of the Total Environment. 342(1-3):1-4. (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.12.026).
  58. Bidleman, T. F., Macdonald, R. W., and Stow, J. P. [Eds]. 2005b. Sources, occurrence, trends and pathways of contaminants in the Arctic. Science of the Total Environment. 342(1-3):1-313.
  59. Christensen, J.R., M. MacDuffee, R.W. Macdonald, M. Whiticar and P.S. Ross. 2005. Pacific salmon deliver persistent organic pollutants to British Columbia grizzly bears. Environmental Science and Technology. 39(18):6952-6960. doi: 10.1021/es050749f
  60. Goñi, M.A., M.B. Yunker, R.W. Macdonald and T.I. Eglinton. 2005. The supply and preservation of ancient and modern components of organic carbon in the Canadian Beaufort Shelf of the Arctic Ocean. Marine Chemistry. 93:53-73.
  61. Johannessen, S.A., D. Masson and R.W. Macdonald. 2005. Distribution and Cycling of Suspended Particles Inferred from Transmissivity in the Strait of Georgia, Haro Strait and Juan de Fuca Strait. Atmosphere-Ocean. 44(1):440102
  62. Johannessen S.A., Macdonald R.W., Eek M. 2005. Mercury in Strait of Georgia sediments: A story of contamination and mixing. Environmental Science and Technology. 39(12):4361-4368. (doi:10.1021/es04535i).
  63. Johannessen, S.C., M.C. O'Brien, K.L. Denman and R.W. Macdonald. 2005. Seasonal and spatial variations in the source and transport of sinking particles in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Marine Geology. 216:59-77. (doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2005.01.004).
  64. Krümmel EM, Gregory-Eaves I, Macdonald RW, Kimpe LE, Demers MJ, Smol JP, Finney B and Blais JM. 2005. Concentrations and fluxes of salmon--derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments. Environmental Science and Technology. 39(18):7020-7026. doi:10.1021/es050657q.
  65. Li, Y.-F. and R.W. Macdonald. 2005. Sources and pathways of selected organochlorine pesticides to the Arctic and their impacts to the existence of these pesticides in the Arctic environment: A review. Science of the Total Environment. 342:87-106. (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.12.027).
  66. Macdonald, R.W., T. Harner and J. Fyfe. 2005. Recent climate change in the Canadian Arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways. Science of the Total Environment. 342:5-86. (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.12.059).
  67. Macdonald, R.W. 2005a. Climate change, risks and contaminants: a perspective from studying the Arctic. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 11(6):1099-1104.
  68. Macdonald, R.W., T. Harner and J. Fyfe. 2005. Recent climate change in the Arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways and interpretation of temporal trend data. Science of the Total Environment, Special Issue. 342:5-86.
  69. Macdonald, R.W. and Y. Yu. 2005. The Mackenzie estuary of the Arctic Ocean. In: Wangersky, P. J. [Eds.]. Water Pollution: Estuaries. 5:91-120. doi: 10.1007/027. Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag.
  70. Macdonald, R.W. 2005d. Beaufort Sea. In: Nuttall, M. [Ed.]. Encyclopedia of the Arctic. 1:219-221. New York, Taylor & Francis.
  71. Scott B.F., Macdonald R.W., Kannan K., Fisk A., Witter A., Yamashita N., Durham L., Spencer C. and Muir D.C.G. 2005. Trifluoroacetate (TFA) profiles in the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Environmental Science and Technology. 39(17):6555-6560. (doi: 10.1021/es047975u).
  72. Steffen, S., W. Schroeder, R.W. Macdonald, L. Poissant and A. Konoplev. 2005. Mercury in the arctic atmosphere: an analysis of eight years of measurements of GEM at Alert (Canada) and a comparison with observations at Amderma (Russia) and Kuujjuarapik (Canada). Science of the Total Environment. 342:185-198 (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.12.048).
  73. Stern G.A. and R.W. Macdonald. 2005. Biogeographic provinces of total and methyl mercury in zooplankton and fish from the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas: Results from the SHEBA drift. Environmental Science and Technology. 39:4707-4713.
  74. Yunker, M.B., L.L. Belicka, H.R. Harvey and R.W. Macdonald. 2005. Tracing the inputs and fate of marine and terrigenous organic matter in Arctic Ocean sediments: A multivariate analysis of lipid biomarkers. Deep-Sea Research Part II. 52(24-26):3478-3508.
  75. Belicka, L.L., R.W. Macdonald, M.B. Yunker and H.R. Harvey. 2004. The role of depositional regime on carbon transport and preservation in Arctic Ocean sediments. Marine Chemistry. 86:65-88.
  76. Carmack, E.C., R.W. Macdonald and S.E. Jasper. 2004. Pelagic phytoplankton productivity on Canadian shelf of the Beaufort Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 277: 37-50.
  77. Gallagher, L., R.W. Macdonald and D.W. Paton. 2004. The historical record of metals in sediments from six lakes in the Fraser River basin, British Columbia. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 152:257-278.
  78. Li Y-F, R.W. Macdonald, J.M. Ma, H. Hung and S. Venkatesh. 2004. Historical a-HCH budget in the Arctic Ocean: The Arctic mass balance box model (AMBBM). The Science of the Total Environment. 324:115-139.
  79. Bidleman T.F., R.W. Macdonald and J. Stow. 2003. Canadian arctic contaminants assessment report II, sources, occurrence, trends and pathways in the physical environment. 332 p. INAC. Ottawa.
  80. Chen, C-TA, K.K. Liu and R.W. Macdonald. 2003. Continental margin exchanges. In: Fasham, M. J. R. [Ed.]. Ocean Biogeochemistry: The role of the ocean carbon cycle in global change. Springer, New York pp. 53-97.
  81. Codispoti, L., J. Hawkey, D. Perovich, L. Barrie, D. Darby and T. Delworth. 2003. Investigating the Arctic marine environment during a period of rapid change: Development, accomplishments, and outlook for OAII. Arctic Research of the United States. 17:9-17.
  82. Johannessen, S.C., R.W. Macdonald and D.W. Paton. 2003. A sediment and organic carbon budget for the greater Strait of Georgia. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science. 56(3-4):845-860 .
  83. Krümmel, E., R.W. Macdonald, L. E. Kimpe, I. Gregory-Eaves, M.J. Demers, J.P. Smol, B. Finney and J.M. Blais. 2003. Anadromous PCB transport via Salmon migration. Nature. 425:255-256.
  84. Macdonald, R.W., D. Mackay, Y-F. Li and B. Hickie. 2003. How will global climate change affect risks from long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants? Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2003(9):643-660.
  85. Macdonald, R.W., B. Morton, S.C. Johannessen. 2003. A review of marine environmental contaminant issues in the North Pacific: the dangers and how to identify them. Environmental Reviews. 11:103-139.
  86. Macdonald R.W., T. Harner, J. Fyfe, H. Loeng and T. Weingartner. 2003. The influence of global change on contaminant pathways to, within and from the Arctic. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. Oslo, Norway. 65 p.
  87. Smith J.N., B. Moran and R.W. Macdonald. 2003. Shelf-basin interactions in the Arctic Ocean based on 210Pb and Ra isotope tracer distributions. Deep-Sea Research Part I. 50:397-416.
  88. Yunker MB and R.W. Macdonald. 2003. Alkane and PAH depositional history, sources and fluxes in sediments from the Fraser River Basin and Strait of Georgia. Organic Geochemistry. 34:1429-1454.
  89. Yunker, M.B. and R.W. Macdonald. 2003. Petroleum biomarker sources in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Fraser River Basin and Strait of Georgia. Organic Geochemistry. 34:1525-1541.
  90. Belicka, L.L., R.W. Macdonald and H.R. Harvey. 2002. Sources and transport of organic carbon to shelf, slope, and basin surface sediments of the Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part I. 49:1463-1483.
  91. Carmack, E.C. and R.W. Macdonald. 2002. Oceanography of the Canadian shelf of the Beaufort Sea: A setting for marine life. Arctic. 55:29-45.
  92. Li, Y-F, R.W. Macdonald, L.M.M. Jantunen, T. Harner, T.F. Bidleman and W.M.J. Strachan. 2002. The transport of ß-hexachlorocyclohexane to the western Arctic Ocean: a contrast to a-HCH. The Science of the Total Environment. 291:229-246.
  93. Macdonald, R.W., D. Mackay and B. Hickie. 2002. Contaminant amplification in the environment: Revealing the fundamental mechanisms. Environmental Science and Technology. 36(23):457A-462A.
  94. Macdonald, R.W., F.A. McLaughlin and E.C. Carmack. 2002. Freshwater and its sources during the SHEBA drift in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research I. 49(10):1769-1785.
  95. Macdonald, R.W., B. Morton, R.F. Addison and S.C. Johannessen. 2002. Marine environmental contaminant issues in the North Pacific: what are the dangers and how do we identify them? In PICES Science: The first ten years and a look to the future. R.I. Perry, P. Livingston and A.S. Bychkov (Eds.) North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES). Sidney, BC. pp. 61-86.
  96. McLaughlin, F.A., E.C. Carmack, R.W. Macdonald, A.Weaver and J. N. Smith. 2002. The Canada Basin 1989-1995: Upstream events and far-field effects of the Barents Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research. 107(C7):3082. doi:10.1029/2001JC000904.
  97. Strain, P.M. and R.W. Macdonald. 2002. The design and implementation of a program to monitor ocean health. Ocean and Coastal Management. 45:325-355.
  98. Yunker, M.B., S.M. Backus, E. GrafPannatier, D.S. Jeffries and R.W. Macdonald. 2002. Sources and significance of alkane and PAH hydrocarbons in Canadian arctic rivers. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science. 55:1-31.
  99. Yunker, M.B., R.W. Macdonald, R. Vingarzan, R.H. Mitchell, D. Goyette and S. Sylvestre. 2002. PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Organic Geochemistry. 33:489-515.
  100. Chen, C.-T.A., K.-K. Liu and R.W. Macdonald. 2001. Continental margins and seas as carbon sinks. Global Change Newsletter. 46:11-13.
  101. Gobeil, C., B. Sundby, R.W. Macdonald and J.N. Smith. 2001. Recent change in organic carbon flux to Arctic Ocean deep basins: Evidence from acid volatile sulfide, manganese and rhenium discord in sediments. Geophysical Research Letters. 28(9):1743-1746.
  102. Gobeil, C., R.W. Macdonald, J.N. Smith and L. Beaudin. 2001. Lead contamination in Arctic basin sediments tracks Atlantic water flow pathways. Science. 293:1301-1304.
  103. Burd, B., R. Macdonald and J. Boyd. 2000. Punctuated recovery of sediments and benthic in fauna: a 19-year study of tailings deposition in a British Columbia fjord. Mar. Environ. Res. 49:145-175.
  104. Goñi, M., M.B. Yunker, R.W. Macdonald and T.I. Eglinton. 2000. Distribution and sources of organic biomarkers in arctic sediments from the Mackenzie River and Beaufort Shelf. Marine Chemistry. 71:23-51.
  105. Harner, T., L.M.M. Jantunen, T.F. Bidleman, L.A. Barrie, H. Kylin, W.M.J. Strachan and R.W. Macdonald. 2000. Microbial degradation is a key elimination pathway of hexachlorocyclohexanes from the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters. 27(8):1155-1158.
  106. Liu, K.-K., L. Atkinson, C.T.A. Chen, S. Gao, J. Hall, R.W. Macdonald, L.T. McManus and R. Quiñones. 2000. Exploring continental margin carbon fluxes in the global context. Eos Transactions, American Geophyisical Union. 81(52):641- 644.
  107. Lockhart, W.L., R.W. Macdonald, P.M. Outridge, P. Wilkinson, J.B. DeLaronde and J.W.M. Rudd. 2000. Tests of the fidelity of lake sediment core records of mercury deposition to known histories of mercury contamination. The Science of the Total Environment. 260:171-180.
  108. Macdonald, R.W. 2000. Arctic estuaries and ice: a positive-negative estuarine couple. In The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean. E.L. Lewis et al. (Eds.) Kluwer Academic Publishers. Netherlands. pp. 383-407.
  109. Macdonald, R.W., L.A. Barrie, T.F. Bidleman, M.L. Diamond, D.J. Gregor, R.G. Semkin, W.M.J. Strachan, Y.F. Li, F. Wania, M. Alaee, L.B. Alexeeva, S.M. Backus, R. Bailey, J.M. Bewers, C. Gobeil, C.J. Halsall, T. Harner, J.T. Hoff, L.M.M. Jantunen, W.L. Lockhart, D. Mackay, D.C.G. Muir, J. Pudykiewicz, K.J. Reimer, J.N. Smith, G.A. Stern, W.H. Schroeder, R. Wagemann and M.B. Yunker. 2000. Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic: 5 years of progress in understanding sources, occurrence and pathways. In Sources, Occurrence, and Pathways of Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic: A Review. R.W. Macdonald (Guest ed.) The Science of the Total Environment. 254: 93-234.
  110. Naidu, A.S., L.W. Cooper, B.P. Finney, R.W. Macdonald, C. Alexander,and I.P. Samiletov. 2000. Organic carbon isotope ratios (d13c) of arctic Amerasian continental shelf sediments. International Journal of Earth Sciences. 89:522-532.
  111. Bright, D.A., W.J. Cretney, R.W. Macdonald, M.G. Ikonomou and S.L. Grundy. 1999. Differentiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources to Howe Sound and the Strait of Georgia, Coastal British Columbia. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 18(6):1097-1108.
  112. Gobiel, C., R.W. Macdonald and J.N. Smith.1999. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Arctic Ocean basins. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33:4194-4198.
  113. Macdonald, R.W., E.C. Carmack, F.A. McLaughlin, K.K. Falkner and J.H. Swift.1999. Connections among ice, runoff and atmospheric forcing in the Beaufort Gyre. Geophys. Res. Letters. 26(15):2223-2226.
  114. Macdonald, R.W., E.C. Carmack and D.W. Paton. 1999. Using the delta 18O composition in landfast ice as a record of arctic estuarine processes. Mar. Chem. 65:3-24.
  115. Shang, D.Y., M.G. Ikonomou and R.W. Macdonald.1999. Quantitative determination of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfacants in marine sediment using normal-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 849:467-482.
  116. Shang, D.Y., R.W. Macdonald and M.G. Ikonomou. 1999. Persistence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants and their primary degradation products in sediments from near a municipal outfall in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33:1366-1372.
  117. Yunker, M.B., R.W. Macdonald, D. Goyette, D.W. Paton, B.R. Fowler, D. Sullivan and J. Boyd. 1999. Natural and anthropogenic inputs of hydrocarbons to the Strait of Georgia. Sci. Total Environ. 225:181-209.
  118. Carmack, E.C., K. Aagaard, J.H. Swift, R.G. Perkin, F.A. McLaughlin, R.W. Macdonald and E.P. Jones. 1998. Thermohaline transitions. In Physical Processes in Lakes and Oceans. J. Imberger (Ed.). Coastal Estuar. Stud. 54:179-186.
  119. Kulikov, E.A., E.C. Carmack and R.W. Macdonald. 1998. Flow variability at the continental shelf break of the Mackenzie Shelf in the Beaufort Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 103:12,725-12,741.
  120. Macdonald, R.W., M.G. Ikonomou and D.W. Paton. 1998. Historical inputs of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs to a British Columbia interior lake: the effect of of environmental controls on pulp mill emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32:331-337.
  121. Macdonald, R.W., S.M. Solomon, R.E. Cranston, H.E. Welch, M.B. Yunker and C. Gobeil. 1998. A sediment and organic carbon budget for the Canadian Beaufort shelf. Marine Geology. 144:255-273.
  122. Gobiel, C., R.W. Macdonald and B. Sundby. 1997. Diagenetic separation of cadmium and manganese in suboxic continental margin sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 61:4647-4654.
  123. Macdonald, R., F. McLaughlin and L. Adamson. 1997. The Arctic Ocean -- the last refuge of volatile organochlorines. Can. Chem. News. 49(8):28-29.
  124. Swift, J.H., E.P. Jones, K. Aagaard, E.C. Carmack, M. Hingston, R.W. Macdonald, F.A. McLaughlin and R.G. Perkin. 1997. Waters of the Makarov and Canada Basins. Deep-Sea Research II. 44(8):1503-1529.
  125. Aagaard, K., L.A. Barrie, E.C. Carmack, K. Garrity, E.P. Jones, D. Lubin, R.W. Macdonald, J.H. Swift, W.B. Tucker, P.A. Wheeler and R.H. Whritner. 1996. U.S., Canadian Researchers explore the Arctic Ocean. Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union. 77(22):209- 213.
  126. Jones, E.P., K. Aagaard, E.C. Carmack, R.W. Macdonald, F.A. McLaughlin, R.G. Perkin and J.H. Swift. 1996. Recent changes in Arctic Ocean thermohaline structure: results from the Canada/U.S. 1994 Arctic Ocean Section. In: Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research. 51:307-315.
  127. Macdonald, R.W. 1996. Awakenings in the Arctic. Nature. 380:286-287.
  128. Macdonald, R.W. and J.M. Bewers. 1996. Contaminants in the Arctic Marine Environment: Priorities for Protection. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 53:537-563.
  129. Macdonald, R.W. and M.C. O'Brien. 1996. Sediment trap evaluation of mine tailings transport. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology. 14:97-109.
  130. McLaughlin, F.A., E.C. Carmack, R.W. Macdonald and J.K.B. Bishop.1996. Physical and geochemical properties across the Atlantic/Pacific water mass front in the southern Canadian Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research. 101(C1):1183-1197.
  131. Odhaimbo, B.K., R.W. Macdonald, M.C. O'Brien, J. Harper and M.B. Yunker. 1996. Transport and fate of mine tailings in a coastal fjord of British Columbia as inferred from the sediment record. Science of the Total Environment. 191:77-94.
  132. Pfirman, S., P. Schlosser and R.W. Macdonald. 1996. Assessment of contaminant risks in the Arctic. Arctic Research of the United States. 10:11-23.
  133. Yunker, M.B., L. R. Snowdon, R.W. Macdonald, J.N. Smith, M.G. Fowler, D.N. Skibo, F.A. McLaughlin, A.I. Danyushevskaya, V.I. Petrova and G.I. Ivanov. 1996. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition and potential sources for sediment samples from the Beaufort and Barents Seas. Environmental Science and Technology. 30:1310-1320.
  134. Carmack, E.C., R.W. Macdonald and R.G. Perkin, F.A. McLaughlin and R. Pearson. 1995. Evidence for warming of Atlantic water in the southern Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean: Results from the Larsen-93 Expedition. Geophysical Research Letters. 22(9):1061-1064.
  135. Gobeil, C., W.K. Johnson, R.W. Macdonald and C.S. Wong. 1995. Sources and burden of lead in St. Lawrence estuary sediments: isotopic evidence. Environmental Science and Technology. 29:193-201.
  136. Yunker, M.B. and R.W. Macdonald. 1995. Composition and origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Mackenzie River and on the Beaufort Sea shelf. Arctic. 48(2):118-129.
  137. Yunker, M.B., R.W. Macdonald, D.J. Veltkamp and W.J. Cretney. 1995. Terrestrial and marine biomarkers in a seasonally ice-covered Arctic estuary -- integration of multivariate and biomarker approaches. Marine Chemistry. 49:1-50.
  138. Falkner, K.K., R.W. Macdonald, E.C. Carmack and T. Weingartner. 1994. The potential of barium as a tracer of Arctic water masses. In The polar oceans and their role in shaping the global environment: the Nansen centennial volume. O.M. Johannessen, R.D. Muench and J.E. Overland (Eds.). Geophysical Monograph. 85:63-76.
  139. Macdonald, R.W., E.C. Carmack and C.H. Pharo. 1994. Sediment Records of Man's Activities in the Kootenay Lake Drainage Basin. Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada. 29:103-116.
  140. Omstedt, A., E.C. Carmack and R.W. Macdonald. 1994. Modeling the seasonal cycle of the oceanographic conditions in the Mackenzie Shelf estuary; fresh water content and salinity. Journal of Geophysical Research. 99:10,011-10,021.
  141. Macdonald, R.W., E.C. Carmack and D.W.R. Wallace. 1993. Tritium and radiocarbon dating of Canada Basin deep waters. Science. 259:103-104.
  142. Yunker, M.B., R.W. Macdonald and B.G. Whitehouse. 1993. Phase associations and lipid distributions in the seasonally ice-covered Arctic Estuary of the Mackenzie Shelf. Organic Geochemistry: 3-5:651-670.
  143. Yunker, M.B., R.W. Macdonald, W.J. Cretney, B.R. Fowler and F. A. McLaughlin. 1993. Alkane, terpene and PAH geochemistry of the Mackenzie River and Mackenzie shelf: Riverine contributions to Beaufort Sea coastal sediment. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 57:3041-3061.
  144. Forbes, J.R., R.W. Macdonald, E.C. Carmack, K. Iseki and M.C. O'Brien. 1992. Zooplankton retained by sequential sediment traps along the Beaufort Sea shelf break during winter. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 49:663-670.
  145. Macdonald, R.W., W.J. Cretney, N. Crewe and D. Paton. 1992. A history of OCDD, 2,3,7,8, TCDF and PCB 77 contamination in Howe Sound, British Columbia, 1992. Environmental Science and Technology. 26:1544-1550.
  146. Macdonald, R.W. and E.C. Carmack. 1991. The role of large-scale under-ice topography in separating estuary and ocean on an Arctic shelf. Atmosphere-Ocean. 29:37-53.
  147. Macdonald, R.W. and E.C. Carmack. 1991. Age of Canada Basin Deep Waters - A way to estimate primary production for the Arctic Ocean. Science. 254:1348-1350.
  148. Macdonald, R.W. and T.F. Pedersen. 1991. Chemical interactions of sediments; Western Canadian Continental Shelves. Continental Shelf Research. 11:717-736.
  149. Macdonald, R.W. and D.J. Thomas. 1991. Chemical interactions and sediments; The western Canadian Arctic Shelf. Continental Shelf Research. 11:843-864.
  150. Macdonald, R.W., D.M. Macdonald, M.C. O'Brien and C. Gobeil. 1991. The accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd), carbon and nitrogen in sediments from Strait of Georgia, B.C. Marine Chemistry. 34:109-135.
  151. Minagawa, M., K. Iseki and R.W. Macdonald. 1991. Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of organic matter in the Arctic food web. La Mer. 29:209-211.
  152. Yunker, M.B., R.W. Macdonald, B.R. Fowler, W.J. Cretney, S. Dallimore and F.A. McLaughlin. 1991. Geochemistry and fluxes of hydrocarbons to the Beaufort Sea shelf: a multivariate comparison of fluvial inputs and coastal erosion of peat using principal components analysis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 55:255-273.
  153. Yunker, M.B., W.J. Cretney, B.R. Fowler, R.W. Macdonald, F.A. McLaughlin and B.G. Whitehouse. 1991. On the distribution of dissolved hydrocarbons in natural water. Organic Geochemistry. 17:301-307.
  154. Jinxia, Li, Du Ronggui, Zhang Gongxun, C.S. Wong, R.W. Macdonald and W.K. Johnson. 1990. The pathway and fate of the heavy metal mixture in Xiamen marine experiment enclosures. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. 9:389-403.
  155. Carmack, E.C., R.W. Macdonald and J.E. Papadakis. 1989. Water mass structure and boundaries in the Mackenzie Shelf Estuary. Journal of Geophysical Research. 94:18,043-18,055.
  156. Macdonald, R.W., E.C. Carmack, F.A. McLaughlin, K. Iseki, D.M. Macdonald and M.C. O'Brien. 1989. Composition and modification of water masses in the Mackenzie Shelf Estuary. Journal of Geophysical Research. 94:18,057-18,070.
  157. Pedersen, T.F., R.D. Waters and R.W. Macdonald. 1989. On the Natural Enrichment of Cadmium and Molybdenum in the Sediments of Ucluelet Inlet, British Columbia. The Science of the Total Environment. 79:125-139.
  158. Whitehouse, B.G., R.W. Macdonald, K. Iseki, M.B. Yunker and F. McLaughlin.1989. Organic Carbon and colloids in the Mackenzie River and Beaufort Sea. Marine Chemistry. 26:371-378.
  159. Yunker, M.B., F.A. McLaughlin, R.W. Macdonald, W.J. Cretney, B.R. Fowler and T.A. Smyth. 1989. The Measurement of Natural Trace Dissolved Hydrocarbon by In Situ Column Extraction : an Intercomparison of Two Adsorption Resins. Analytical Chemistry. 61:1333-1343.
  160. Macdonald, R.W. and Li Jinxia.1988. The Preparation and Use of Reference Marine Sediment. Marine Science Bulletin. 7:75-82.
  161. Iseki, K., R.W. Macdonald and E.C. Carmack. 1987. Distribution of Particulate Matter in the Southeastern Beaufort Sea in Late Summer. In Proceedings of the 9th Symposium on Polar Biology, National Institute of Polar Research. 1:35-46.
  162. Macdonald, R.W., C.S. Wong and P. Erickson. 1987. The Distribution of Nutrients in the Southeastern Beaufort Sea: Implications for Water Circulation and Primary Production. Journal of Geophysical Research. 92:2939-2952.
  163. Macdonald, R.W., F.A. McLaughlin and C.S. Wong. 1986. The Storage of Reactive Silicate Samples by Freezing. Limnology and Oceanography. 31:1139-1142.
  164. Macdonald, R.W. and M.C. O'Brien. 1986. Extending the Use of Certified Reference Sediments for Assessment of Accuracy in Determinations of Trace Metals. Analytica Chimica Acta. 177:81-91.
  165. Thomas, D.J., R.W. Macdonald and A.B. Cornford. 1986. Geochemical Mass-Balance Calculations for the Coastal Beaufort Sea, N.W.T., Canada. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 186:165-184.
  166. Iseki, K., R.W. Macdonald and C.S. Wong. 1984. The Effect of Wood Waste Dumping on Organic Matter in Seawater and Surficial Sediments of Alberni Inlet, B.C. Journal of the Oceanographic Society of Japan. 40:213-220.
  167. Macdonald, R.W. and F. McLaughlin. 1982. The Effect of Storage by Freezing on dissolved inorganic Phosphate, Nitrate and Reactive Silicate for Samples from Estuarine and Coastal Waters. Water Research. 16:95-104.