Lisa Waddell, BSc. MSc. PhD.

Image Waddell, Lisa
Evidence synthesis team lead and senior epidemiologist

Researcher specialized in the application of evidence synthesis methodologies to priority infectious disease public health issues. Methods expertise includes systematic reviews, scoping reviews, meta-analysis, rapid reviews, literature surveillance, decision modelling, and knowledge translation for a range of audiences.

Current research and/or projects

Evidence synthesis is fundamental to public health decision-making.  My research focuses on the application of a variety of synthesis methods to support the evidence needs on priority public health issues in Canada. 

While synthesis methods can be applied to any topic, my expertise is in infectious diseases including COVID-19 and a wide range of food safety, vectorborne and zoonotic diseases.

Keystone methods:

Scoping reviews and evidence maps are used to describe the evidence underpinning a broad topic area and provides information on where there is research and where knowledge gaps exist.

Systematic reviews and rapid reviews identify, appraise and synthesize evidence on a focused topic/question, for example whether an intervention is effective, and describes the confidence in that evidence.

Meta-analysis is a statistical technique that combines quantitative information from multiple studies identified in a systematic review to create a single, more precise, summary measure of effect. It can be used to compare effective interventions (network meta-analysis), or investigate why studies do not agree (meta-regression).

New methods that have been developed and employed during a public health event include literature surveillance and living evidence summaries geared towards the continuous identification and summarization of evidence to support decision-making on a rapidly changing situation.

When these methods are applied on relevant public health issues the products can be used to help decision makers understand the available evidence and how reliable it is and where knowledge gaps exist. The outputs of knowledge synthesis can be used directly in evidence-based decision making or may be used as evidence-based inputs to risk assessments and other decision-analysis models.

Research and/or project statements

Topic area expertise:

Infectious diseases including COVID-19 and mpox 

Vector borne diseases: Lyme, Powassan, La Crosse virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Cache Valley virus, zoonotic Babesia, anaplasmosis, zika, chikungunya

Food safety: education and determinants of safe food handling for consumers and food service workers, a variety of food safety topics related to the control of Salmonella, Campylobacter and E.coli in the food continuum.

Other topics: Hepatitis E virus, Enterovirus D-68

Professional activities / interests

Close collaboration horizontally across the agency and with a number of Canadian and international agencies and academic institutions on priority public health issues and innovative research to improve prevention strategies and response capacity on a range of infectious disease topics.

Education and awards

BSc (Hons.) Biology, University of Guelph, 2002

MSc. Epidemiology, Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 2004

PhD. Epidemiology, Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 2016

International experience and/or work

Member of the World Health Organization Collaboratory for pandemic and epidemic intelligence aimed at developing a global collaborative space to solve complex problems collectively, design systems and jointly evaluate and improve analytical tools, 2023- present.

Member of the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization and World Health Organization committee to prioritize low moisture foods for further guideline development by Codex Alimentarius, 2014-2015.

Key publications

  1. Corrin, T., Ayache, D., Baumeister, A., Young, K., Pussegoda, K., Ahmad, R., Waddell, L. 2023. COVID-19 literature surveillance—A framework to manage the literature and support evidence-based decision-making on a rapidly evolving public health topic. Canada Communicable Disease Report 49 (1), 5. doi: 10.14745/ccdr.v49i01a02
  2. Gabriele-Rivet, V., K. L. Spence, N. H. Ogden, A. Fazil, P. Turgeon, A. Otten, L. A. Waddell and V. Ng, 2021: Modelling the impact of age-stratified public health measures on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Canada. R. Soc. open sci.8210834210834
  3. Hongoh, V., D. Maybury, J. Levesque, A. Fazil, A. Otten, P. Turgeon, L. Waddell and N. H. Ogden, 2021: Evaluating transmission risk of COVID-19 at gatherings. Can Commun Dis Rep 2021;47(11):446–60.
  4. Domingo, F. R., L. A. Waddell, A. M. Cheung, C. L. Cooper, V. J. Belcourt, A. M. Zuckermann, T. Corrin, R. Ahmad, L. Boland and C. Laprise, 2021: Prevalence of long-term effects in individuals diagnosed with COVID-19: a living systematic review. medRxiv. doi:
  5. Atchessi, N., R. Edjoc, M. Striha, L. Waddell, N. Bresee and T. Dawson, 2021: Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults: a rapid review. Can Commun Dis Rep 2021;47(7/8):305–15.
  6. Baumeister, A., T. Corrin, H. Abid, K. Young, D. Ayache and L. Waddell, 2021: The quality of systematic reviews and other synthesis in the time of COVID-19. Epidemiology and Infection, 149, E182. doi:10.1017/S0950268821001758
  7. Ng, V., A. Fazil, L. A. Waddell, P. Turgeon, A. Otten and N. H. Ogden, 2021: Modelling the impact of shutdowns on resurging SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Canada. R. Soc. open sci.8210233210233
  8. Atchessi, N., M. Striha, R. Edjoc, C. Abalos, A. Lien, L. Waddell, I. Gabrani-Juma, E. Thompson and T. Dawson, 2021: COVID-19 negative patients who retested positive. Can Commun Dis Rep 2021;47(4):195–201.
  9. Atchessi, N., M. Striha, R. Edjoc, C. Abalos, A. Lien, L. Waddell, I. Gabrani-Juma, E. Thompson and T. Dawson, 2021: Serum antibody response in COVID-19-recovered patients who retested positive. Can Commun Dis Rep 2021;47(4):195–201.
  10. Corrin, T., R. Ackford, M. Mascarenhas, J. Greig and L. A. Waddell, 2021: Eastern equine encephalitis virus: a scoping review of the global evidence. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2021 May;21(5):305-320. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2020.2671
  11. El Jaouhari, M., R. Edjoc, L. Waddell, P. Houston, N. Atchessi, M. Striha and S. Bonti-Ankomah, 2021: Impact of school closures and re-openings on COVID-19 transmission.  Can Commun Dis Rep 2021;47(12):515–23.
  12. Striha, M., R. Edjoc, N. Bresee, N. Atchessi, L. Waddell, T.-L. Bennett, E. Thompson, M. El Jaouhari and S. Bonti-Ankomah, 2021: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: Rapid review of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in paediatrics: What we know one year later. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 47, 466.
  13. Thaivalappil, A., M. Mascarenhas, L. A. Waddell and I. Young, 2021: An evaluation of a Publicly Available International Foodborne Outbreak Database. Can Commun Dis Rep 2021;47(1):59–65.
  14. Young, I., C. Prematunge, K. Pussegoda, T. Corrin and L. Waddell, 2021: Tick exposures and alpha-gal syndrome: a systematic review of the evidence. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2021 May;12(3):101674. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2021.101674.
  15. Ng, V., A. Fazil, L. A. Waddell, C. Bancej, P. Turgeon, A. Otten, N. Atchessi and N. H. Ogden, 2020: Projected effects of nonpharmaceutical public health interventions to prevent resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Canada. CMAJ, 192, E1053-E1064.
  16. Ogden, N. H., A. Fazil, J. Arino, P. Berthiaume, D. N. Fisman, A. L. Greer, A. Ludwig, V. Ng, A. R. Tuite and P. Turgeon, L.A. Waddell, J. Wu.  2020: Artificial intelligence in public health: Modelling scenarios of the epidemic of COVID-19 in Canada. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 46, 198.
  17. Sadeghieh, T., L. A. Waddell, V. Ng, A. Hall and J. Sargeant, 2020: A scoping review of importation and predictive models related to vector-borne diseases, pathogens, reservoirs, or vectors (1999–2016). PloS one, 15, e0227678.
  18. Wilhelm, B., L. Waddell, J. Greig and I. Young, 2020: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of predictors of human hepatitis E virus exposure in non‐endemic countries. Zoonoses and public health.
  19. Young, I., L. A. Waddell, B. J. Wilhelm and J. Greig, 2020: A systematic review and meta-regression of single group, pre-post studies evaluating food safety education and training interventions for food handlers. Food Research International, 128, 108711.
  20. Young, K. M., T. Corrin, B. Wilhelm, C. Uhland, J. Greig, M. Mascarenhas and L. A. Waddell, 2019: Zoonotic Babesia: A scoping review of the global evidence. PloS one, 14, e0226781.
  21. Harding, S., J. Greig, M. Mascarenhas, I. Young and L. Waddell, 2019: La Crosse virus: A scoping review of the global evidence. Epidemiology & Infection, 147. doi:10.1017/S0950268818003096
  22. Hierlihy, C., L. Waddell, I. Young, J. Greig, T. Corrin and M. Mascarenhas, 2019: A systematic review of individual and community mitigation measures for prevention and control of chikungunya virus. PloS one, 14, e0212054.
  23. Ickert, C., J. Cheng, D. Reimer, J. Greig, A. Hexemer, T. Kershaw, L. Waddell and M. Mascarenhas, 2019: Methods for generating hypotheses in human enteric illness outbreak investigations: a scoping review of the evidence. Epidemiology & Infection, 147. doi:10.1017/S0950268819001699
  24. Waddell, L., N. Pachal, M. Mascarenhas, J. Greig, S. Harding, I. Young and B. Wilhelm, 2019: Cache Valley virus: A scoping review of the global evidence. Zoonoses and public health, 66, 739-758.
  25. Wilhelm, B., L. Waddell, J. Greig and I. Young, 2019: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in the general population across non-endemic countries. PloS one, 14, e0216826.
  26. Young, I., J. Greig, B. J. Wilhelm and L. A. Waddell, 2019: Effectiveness of Food Handler Training and Education Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of food protection, 82, 1714-1728.
  27. Young, I., A. Thaivalappil, L. Waddell, R. Meldrum and J. Greig, 2019: Psychosocial and organizational determinants of safe food handling at retail and food service establishments: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of environmental health research, 29, 371-386
  28. Mascarenhas, M., S. Garasia, P. Berthiaume, T. Corrin, J. Greig, V. Ng, I. Young and L. Waddell, 2018: A scoping review of published literature on chikungunya virus. PloS one, 13, e0207554.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207554.
  29. Waddell LA, Greig J, Lindsay LR, Hinckley AF, Ogden NH (2018) A systematic review on the impact of gestational Lyme disease in humans on the fetus and newborn. PLOS ONE 13(11): e0207067.
  30. Young I., Thaivalappil A., Waddell L., Meldrum R. & Greig J. (2018): Psychosocial and organizational determinants of safe food handling at retail and food service establishments: a systematic review and meta-analysis, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, DOI: 10.1080/09603123.2018.1544611
  31. Greig JD, Young I, Harding S, Mascarenhas M, Waddell LA. A scoping review of Lyme disease research relevant to public health. Can Commun Dis Rep 2018;44(10):243–56. ccdr.v44i10a03
  32. Thaivalappil, A., Waddell, L., Greig, J., Meldrum, R., Young, I. A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative research studies on factors affecting safe food handling at retail and food service. Food Control Volume 89, July 2018, Pages 97-107
  33. Tricia Corrin, Judy Greig, Shannon Harding, Ian Young, Mariola Mascarenhas, Lisa A. Waddell. Powassan virus, a scoping review of the global evidence. 17 June 2018. Zoonoses and Public Health.
  34. Ian Young, Abhinand Thaivalappil, Judy Greig, Richard Meldrum & Lisa Waddell. Explaining the food safety behaviours of food handlers using theories of behaviour change: a systematic review. 01 Jun 2018. International Journal of Environmental Health Research.


  35. Tricia Corrin; Lisa Waddell; Judy Greig; Ian Young; Catherine Hierlihy; Mariola Mascarenhas. Risk perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals: a systematic review. Trop Med Health. 2017; 45: 21. doi:10.1186/s41182-017-0061-x

  36. Ian Young, Danielle Reimer, Judy Greig, Richard Meldrum, Patricia Turgeon, and Lisa Waddell. Explaining consumer safe food handling through behaviour-change theories: a systematic review". Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2017 Nov;14(11):609-622. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2017.2288. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

  37. Ian Young, Danielle Reimer, Judy Greig, Patricia Turgeon, Richard Meldrum, Lisa Waddell, Psychosocial and health-status determinants of safe food handling among consumers: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Food Control, 2017, vol 14, ISSN 0956-7135,

  38. Waddell L, Greig J, Mascarenhas M, Otten A, Corrin T, Hierlihy K. Current evidence on the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease prions to humans-A systematic review. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Jan 30. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12612. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PMID: 28139079

  39. Waddell LA, Greig J, Mascarenhas M, Harding S, Lindsay R, Ogden N. The Accuracy of Diagnostic Tests for Lyme Disease in Humans, A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of North American Research. PLoS One. 2016 Dec 21;11(12):e0168613. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168613. PMID: 28002488

  40. Young I, Waddell L. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies. PLoS One. 2016 Dec 1;11(12):e0167695. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167695. PMID: 27907161

  41. Waddell L, Rajić A, Stärk K, McEwen SA. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis detection in animals, food, water and other sources or vehicles of human exposure: A scoping review of the existing evidence. Prev Vet Med. 2016 Sep 15;132:32-48. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.08.003. Review. PMID: 27664446

  42. Pham MT, Waddell L, Rajić A, Sargeant JM, Papadopoulos A, McEwen SA. Implications of applying methodological shortcuts to expedite systematic reviews: three case studies using systematic reviews from agri-food public health. Res Synth Methods. 2016 Dec;7(4):433-446. doi: 10.1002/jrsm.1215. PMID: 27285733

  43. Waddell LA, Greig JD. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature. PLoS One. 2016 May 31;11(5):e0156376. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156376. PMID: 27244249

  44. Young I, Waddell L, Cahill S, Kojima M, Clarke R, Rajić A. Application of a Rapid Knowledge Synthesis and Transfer Approach To Assess the Microbial Safety of Low-Moisture Foods. J Food Prot. 2015 Dec;78(12):2264-78. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-15-146. Review. PMID: 26613924

  45. Waddell, L.A. Use of Knowledge Synthesis and Translation Methodologies as the Basis of an Evidence Informed Evaluation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. PhD Thesis.University of Guelph. May 2016.

  46. Waddell, L. A., Rajić, A., Stärk, K. D. C. and McEwen, S. A. (2015), The potential Public Health Impact of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: Global Opinion Survey of Topic Specialists. Zoonoses Public Health. 2016 May;63(3):212-22. doi: 10.1111/zph.12221. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

  47. B. Sivaramalingam, I. Young, M.T. Pham, L. Waddell, J. Grig, M. Mascarehas, A. Papadopoulos. Scoping Review of Research on the Effectiveness of Food-safety Education Interventions Directed at Consumers.Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2015 Jul;12(7):561-70. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2014.1927. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

  48. L. A. Waddell, A. Rajic´, K. D. C. Stark and S. A. McEwen.The zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analyses of the evidence.Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Nov;143(15):3135-57. doi: 10.1017/S095026881500076X. Epub 2015 May 20.

  49. Young I, Waddell L, Harding S, Greig J, Mascarenhas M, Sivaramalingam B, Pham MT, Papadopoulos A.A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of food safety education interventions for consumers in developed countries. BMC Public Health. 2015 Aug 26;15:822. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2171-x

  50. Wilhelm, B. Waddell, L., Greig, J., Houde, A., McEwen, S. A scoping review of the evidence for public health risks of three emerging potentially zoonotic viruses: hepatitis E virus, norovirus, and rotavirus Preventive Veterinary Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.51). 01/2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.01.015

  51. Young I, Kerr A, Waddell L, Pham MT, Greig J, McEwen SA, Rajić A. A guide for developing plain-language and contextual summaries of systematic reviews in agri-food public health. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 Dec;11(12):930-7. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2014.1807.

  52. J. Greig, A. Rajić, I. Young, M. Mascarenhas, L. Waddell, J. LeJeune. A Scoping Review of the Role of Wildlife in the Transmission of Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance to the Food Chain. Zoonoses Public Health. 2015 Jun;62(4):269-84. doi: 10.1111/zph.12147. Epub 2014 Aug 30.

  53. Young I, Waddell L, Sanchez J, Wilhelm B, McEwen SA, Rajić A.The application of knowledge synthesis methods in agri-food public health: recent advancements, challenges and opportunities.(2014) Preventive veterinary medicine. 113 (4) 339-55.

  54. I Young, K Gropp, K Pintar, L Waddell, B Marshall, K Thomas, S A McEwen, A Rajić. Experiences and Attitudes Towards Evidence-Informed Policy-Making Among Research and Policy Stakeholders in the Canadian Agri-Food Public Health Sector.Zoonoses Public Health. 2014 Dec;61(8):581-9. doi: 10.1111/zph.12108. Epub 2014 Feb 15.

  55. Agnes Agunos, Lisa Waddell, David Léger, Eduardo Taboada.A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens. PLoS ONE 01/2014.

  56. Kerr AK, Farrar AM, Waddell LA, Wilkins W, Wilhelm BJ, Bucher O, Wills RW, Bailey RH, Varga C, McEwen SA, Rajić A. A systematic review-meta-analysis and meta-regression on the effect of selected competitive exclusion products on Salmonella spp. prevalence and concentration in broiler chickens.Preventive veterinary medicine. 2013.

  57. Wilhelm B, Rajić A, Parker S, Waddell L, Sanchez J, Fazil A, Wilkins W, McEwen SA.Assessment of the efficacy and quality of evidence for five on-farm interventions for Salmonella reduction in grow-finish swine: a systematic review and meta-analysis.(2012) Preventive veterinary medicine. 107 (1-2) 1-20.

  58. Sarah C. Totton, Ashley M. Farrar, Wendy Wilkins, Oliver Bucher, Lisa A. Waddell, Barbara J. Wilhelm, Scott A. McEwen, Andrijana Rajic. The effectiveness of selected feed and water additives for reducing Salmonella spp. of public health importance in broiler chickens:a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. (2012) PVM.106 (3-4) 197-213.

  59. Tuševljak N, Rajić A, Waddell L, Dutil L, Cernicchiaro N, Greig J, Wilhelm BJ, Wilkins W, Totton S, Uhland FC, Avery B, McEwen SA. Prevalence of Zoonotic Bacteria in Wild and Farmed Aquatic Species and Seafood: A Scoping Study, Systematic Review, and Meta-analysis of Published Research. (2012) Foodborne Pathog Dis. 9 (6) 487-97.

  60. Sarah C. Totton,Ashley M. Farrar, Wendy Wilkins, Oliver Bucher, Lisa A. Waddell, Barbara J. Wilhelm, Scott A. McEwen, Andrijana Rajić. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of biosecurity and vaccination in reducing Salmonella spp. in broiler chickens. Food Res Int 45(2):617-627 (2012)

  61. Mederos, A., Waddell, L., Sanchez, J., Kelton, D., Peregrine, A. S., Menzies, P., et al. A systematic review-meta-analysis of primary research investigating the effect of selected alternative treatments on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep under field conditions. (2012). Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 104(1-2), 1-14. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.10.012

  62. Bucher, O., Farrar, A. M., Totton, S. C., Wilkins, W., Waddell, L. A., Wilhelm, B. J. A systematic review-meta-analysis of chilling interventions and a meta-regression of various processing interventions for salmonella contamination of chicken. (2012)., et al. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 103(1), 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.09.017

  63. Wilhelm, B. J., Rajic, A., Greig, J., Waddell, L., Trottier, G., Houde, A., et al. A systematic review/meta-analysis of primary research investigating swine, pork or pork products as a source of zoonotic hepatitis E virus. (2011). Epidemiology and Infection, 139(8), 1127-1144.

  64. Wilhelm, B., Rajic, A., Greig, J. D., Waddell, L., & Harris, J. The effect of hazard analysis critical control point programs on microbial contamination of carcasses in abattoirs: A systematic review of published data. (2011). Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 8(9), 949-960.

  65. Ilic, S., Rajic, A., Britton, C. J., Grasso, E., Wilkins, W., Totton, S., Wilhelm, B., Waddell, L., LeJeune, J. A scoping study characterizing prevalance, risk factor and intervention research, published between 1990 and 2010. for microbial hazards in leafy green vegetables. (2011). Food Control, 23, 7-19.

  66. Wilkins W, Rajić A, Parker S, Waddell L, Sanchez J, Sargeant J, Waldner C. Examining heterogeneity in the diagnostic accuracy of culture and PCR for Salmonella spp. in swine: a systematic review/meta-regression approach. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010 Nov;57 Suppl 1:121-34.

  67. Guerin, Michele; Sir, Charlotte; Sargeant, Jan; Waddell, Lisa; O'Connor, Annette; Wills, Robert; Bailey, R. Hart; Byrd, James. "The Change in Prevalence of Campylobacter on Chicken Carcasses during Processing: A Systematic Review" Poult Sci 2010; 89(5):1070-1084

  68. Young, A. Rajić, B.J. Wilhelm, L. Waddell, S. Parker, S.A. McEwen.Comparison of the Prevalence of Bacterial Enteropathogens, Potentially Zoonotic Bacteria and Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials in Organic and Conventional Poultry, Swine and Beef Production: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Approach. Epidemiol Infect. 2009 Sep;137(9):1217-32.

  69. Barbara Wilhelm, Andrijana Rajić, Lisa Waddell, Sarah Parker, Janet Harris, Karen C. Roberts, Robyn Kydd, Judy Greig, Ashley Baynton.Prevalence of zoonotic or potentially zoonotic bacteria, antimicrobial resistance and somatic cell counts in organic dairy production: current knowledge and research gaps.Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009 Jun;6(5):525

  70. Waddell L, Rajić A, Sargeant J, Parker S, Deckert A, and McEwen S. The Methodological Soundness of Literature Reviews Addressing Three Potential Zoonotic Public Health Issues. Zoonoses Public Health. 2009 Nov;56(9-10):477-89.

  71. Lisa A.Waddell, Andrijana Rajić, Jan Sargeant, Janet Harris, Rocio Amezcua, Lindsay Downey, Susan Read, Scott A. McEwen.The Zoonotic Potential of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis: A Systematic Review. 2008. Zoonoses and Public Health. Mar-Apr;99(2):145-55.

  72. Rajic, A., Waddell, L., Sargeant, J., Read, S., Jeff Farber, Martin J. Firth and Albert Chambers.An overview of microbial food safety programs in beef, pork, and poultry from farm to processing in Canada. Journal of Food Protection.2007. 70: 1286-1294.

  73. J.M. Sargeant,M.R. Amezcua,A. Rajic, L. Waddell.Pre-harvest interventions to reduce the shedding of E. coli O157 in the faeces of weaned domestic ruminants: A systematic review.Zoonoses and Public Health. 54 (2007) 260-277.

  74. Sargeant, J; Amezcua, R; Rajic, A, and Waddell, L. Conducting Systematic Reviews in Agri-Food Public Health. 2005 Aug. English: , French: