Kyle Garver

Research Scientist

Current research and/or projects

Dr. Garver leads the Virology Research Program in the Aquatic Animal Health Section. The main focus of the program is to identify and characterize viruses of finfish, to better understand viral traffic throughout watersheds, and to develop prevention and treatment methodologies. Using current molecular biology techniques, the Virology research group obtains critical information on viral epidemiology and virus-host interactions, ultimately allowing a better understanding of viral origin, distribution, and impact on fish species.

Research and/or project statements

Professional activities / interests

Professor at:

  • Vancouver Island University

Education and awards

BSc, Biology, Pennsylvania State University,1993

PhD, Molecular Virology,  Purdue University, 2000

International experience and/or work

World Oganisation for Animal Health (OIE) Reference Expert for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

Key publications

  1. Polinski MP, Bradshaw JC, Rise ML, Johnson SC, Garver KA. (2019) Sockeye salmon demonstrate robust yet distinct transcriptomic kidney responses to rhabdovirus (IHNV) exposure and infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019 Nov;94:525-538. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2019.09.042. Epub 2019 Sep 17.
  2. Jones, S.R.M, Long, A., MacWilliams, C., Polinski, M., Garver, K.A.  (2019) Factors associated with severity of naturally occurring piscirickettsiosis in netpen- and tank-reared juvenile Atlantic salmon at a research aquarium in western Canada. J Fish Dis. 2020 Jan;43(1):49-55. doi: 10.1111/jfd.13102. Epub 2019 Nov 10.
  3. Gross L, Richard J, Hershberger P, Garver K (2019) Low susceptibility of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVa. Dis Aquat Org 135:201-209.
  4. Zhange, Y., Polinski, M.P., Morrison, P.R., Brauner, C.J., Farrell, A.P., Garver, K.A. (2019) High-load piscine orthoreovirus infections do not imply physiological impairment in Atlantic salmon.  Frontiers in Physiology 10:114. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00114
  5. Polinski, M.P., Marty, G., Snyman, H., Garver, K.A. (2019) Successful passage of PRV but not HSMI in Mowi-McConnell Atlantic salmon suggests secondary requirements for initiating PRV-associated disease. Scientific Reports 9:3297 |
  6. Long, A., Garver, K.A., Jones, S.R.M (2019) Synergistic osmoregulatory dysfunction during salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus co-infection in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts. Journal of Fish Diseases 10.1111/jfd.12989
  7. Long, A., K.A. Garver, & S.R.M. Jones. 2019. Differential effects of adult salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on physiological responses of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). J Aquat Anim Health. 2019 Mar;31(1):75-87. doi: 10.1002/aah.10053. Epub 2018 Dec 19.
  8. Garver KA, Leskisenoja K, Macrae R, Hawley LM and others (2018) An alloherpesvirus infection of European perch Perca fluviatilis in Finland. Dis Aquat Org 128:175-185.
  9. Lehnert, S.J., Garver, K.A., Richard, J., Devlin, R.H., Lajoie, C., Pitcher, T.E., Health, D.D. (2018) Significant differences in maternal carotenoid provisioning and effects on offspring fitness in Chinook salmon colour morphs. Journal of Evolutionary Biology.
  10. Roscow, O., Ganassin, R., Garver, K.A., Polinski, M. (2018) Z-FA-FMK demonstrates differential inhibition of aquatic orthoreovirus (PRV), aquareovirus (CSRV), and rhabdovirus (IHNV) replication.  Virus Research 244, 194-198.
  11. Pham, P.H., Sokeechand, B.S.H., Garver, K.A., Jones, G., Lumsden, J.S., Bols, N.C. (2018) Fish viruses stored in RNAlater can remain infectious and even be temporarily protected from inactivation by heat or by tissue homogenates. Journal of Virological Methods 253, 31-37.
  12. Long, A., Richard, J., Hawley, L.M., LaPatra, S.E., Garver, K.A. (2017) Transmission potential of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in APEX-IHN ® vaccinated Atlantic salmon. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms Jan 24; 122 (3): 213-221
  13. Misk, E., Tubbs, L., Garver, K.A., Isaac, S., Wright, E., Al-Hussinee, L., Lumsden, J. (2017) Spring Viremia of Carp Virus: A RT-qPCR assay and surveillance in Ontario from 2008 to 2012. Journal of Great Lakes Research
  14. Hershberger, P.K., Garver, K.A., Winton, J.R. (2016) Principles Underlying the Epizootiology of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Pacific Herring and other Fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 10.1139/cjfas-2015-0417
  15. Polinski, M.P, Bradshaw, J.C., Inkpen, S.M., Richard, J.R., Fritsvold, C., Poppe, T.T., Rise M.L., Garver, K.A., Johnson, S.C. (2016) De novo assembly of Sockeye salmon kidney transcriptomes reveal a limited early response to piscine reovirus with or without infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus superinfection. BMC Genomics (2016) 17:848 DOI 10.1186/s12864-016-3196-y
  16. Garver KA, Johnson SC, Polinski MP, Bradshaw JC, Marty GD, Snyman HN, et al. (2016) Piscine Orthoreovirus from Western North America Is Transmissible to Atlantic Salmon and Sockeye Salmon but Fails to Cause Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0146229. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146229
  17. Gardner, I.A, Whittington, R.J., Caraguel, C.G.B, Hick, P., Moody, J.G., Corbeil, S., Garver, K.A., Warg, J.V., Arzul, I., Purcell, M.K., Crane, M.StJ., Waltzek, T.B., Olesen, N.J., Lagno, A.G. (2016) Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 118:91-111
  18. Misk, E., Garver, K., Nagy, E., Isaac, S., Tubbs, L., Huber, P., Al-Hussinee, L. and Lumsden, J. S. (2015), Pathogenesis of spring viremia of carp virus in emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede). Journal of Fish Diseases. doi: 10.1111/jfd.12405
  19. Müller, A., Sutherland, B.J.G., Koop, B.F., Johnson, S.C., Garver, K.A. (2015)  Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) persistence in Sockeye Salmon: effect on brain transcriptome and response to the viral mimic poly(I:C). BMC Genomics 2015, 16:634 doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1759-y.
  20. Garver, K. A., Marty, G. D., Cockburn, S. N., Richard, J., Hawley, L. M., Müller, A., Thompson, R. L., Purcell, M. K. and Saksida, S. (2015), Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases. doi: 10.1111/jfd.12329
  21. Foreman, M.G.G., Guo, M., Garver, K.A., Stucchi, D., Chandler, P., Wan, D., Morrison, J., Tuele, D. (2015) Modelling infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus dispersion from marine salmon farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0130951. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130951
  22. Hershberger, P. K., Gregg, J. L., Hart, L. M., Moffitt, S., Brenner, R., Stick, K., Coonradt, E., Otis, E. O., Vollenweider, J. J., Garver, K. A., Lovy, J. and Meyers, T. R. (2015), The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific. Journal of Fish Diseases. doi: 10.1111/jfd.12370
  23. Garver, K.A., Mahony, A., Stucchi, D., Richard, J., Van Woensel, C., Foreman, M., (2013) Estimation of waterborne transmission parameters associated with IHNV infection in Atlantic salmon. PLoS ONE 8(12): e82296. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082296
  24. Hershberger P.K., Purcell M. K, Hart L.M., Gregg J.L., Thompson R.L, Garver K.A., Winton J.R. (2013) Influence of temperature on viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valenciennes Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology vol 444, 81-86.
  25. Lovy J., Piesik P., Hershberger P.K., Garver K.A.  (2013) Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity. Veterinary Microbiology vol 166, 91-101.
  26. Purcell MK, Thompson RL, Garver KA, Hawley LM, Batts WN, Sprague L, Sampson C, Winton JR. (2013) Universal reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 106:103-115
  27. Bland, F., Snow, M., Garver, K.A., Matejusova, I. (2013) Genotype-specific Taqman assays for the detection and rapid characterization of European strains of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. Journal of Virological Methods vol 187 (2), 209-214.
  28. Garver, K.A., Traxler, G.T., Hawley, L.M., Richard, J., Ross, J., Lovy, J. (2013) Molecular Epidemiology of VHSV in British Columbia, Canada Reveals Transmission from Wild to Farmed fish.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms vol 104, 93-104.
  29. Lovy J., Lewis N.L., Hershberger P.K., Bennett W., Garver K.A. (2012) Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring from British Columbia.  Veterinary Microbiology 161, 66-76
  30. Waltzek, T.B., Marty, G.D., Alfaro, M.E., Bennett, W.R., Garver, K.A., Haulena, M., Weber III, S.E., Hedrick, R.P. (2012) Systemic iridovius from threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus represents a new megalocytivirus species (family Iridoviridae). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms Vol. 98: 41-56.
  31. Afonso LO, Richmond Z, Eaves AA, Richard J, Hawley LM, and Garver, KA. (2012) Use of Ultraviolet C (UVC) Radiation to Inactivate Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) and Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) in Fish Processing Plant Effluent. J Aquac Res Development 3:120 doi:10.4172/2155-9546.1000120.
  32. Foreman, M.G.G, Stucchi, D.J., Garver, K.A., Tuele, D., Isaac, J., Grime, T., Guo, M. (2012) A Circulation Model for the Discovery Islands, British Columbia. Atmosphere-Ocean 50 (3), 301-316.
  33. Purcell, M.K., Getchell, R.G., McClure, C.A., and Garver, K.A. (2011) Quantitative PCR for Detection of Aquatic Animal Pathogens in a Diagnostic Laboratory Setting. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health Vol 23(3) 148-161.
  34. Jakob, E., Barker, D.E., Garver, K.A. (2011) Vector potential of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in the transmission of infectious haemotopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms Vol 97:155-165.
  35. Grant, A.M., Jakob, E., Richard, J.,  Garver, K.A. (2011) Concentration of infectious aquatic rhabdoviruses from freshwater and seawater using ultra-filtration. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health Vol. 23 (4) 218-223.
  36. Thompson, T.M., Batts, W., Bowser, P., Faisal, M., Phillips, K., Garver, K.A., Winton, J., and Kurath, G. (2011) Emergence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms Vol 96:29-43.
  37. Garver, K.A., Hawley, L.M, McClure, C.A., Schroeder, T., Aldous, S., Doig, F., Snow, M., Edes, S., Baynes, C., and Richard, J. (2011) Development and validation of a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for universal detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms Vol 95: 97-112.
  38. Hart, L.M., Traxler, G.S., Garver, K.A., Richard, J., Gregg, J.L., Grady, C.A., Kurath, G., Hershberger, P.K. (2011) Larval and juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii are not susceptible to infectious hematopoietic necrosis under laboratory conditions. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms  Vol 93: 105-110.
  39. Emmenegger, E.J., Kentop, E., Thompson, T.M., Pittam, S., Ryan, A., Keon, D., Carlino, J.A., Ranson, J., Life, R.B., Troyer, R.M., Garver, K.A., and Kurath, G., (2011) Development of an aquatic pathogen database (AquaPathogen X) and its utilization in tracking emerging fish virus pathogens in North America: Journal of Fish Diseases, no. 34, p. 579–587.
  40. Garver, K.A., Hawley, L.M., Al-Hussinee, L., Edes, S., LePage,V., Contador, E., Lord, S.,. Stevenson, R.M.W., Souter, B., Schroeder,T., Wright, E., Lumsden, J.S.  (2010) First identification of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in Canada affecting wild common carp. Journal of Wildlife Diseases Oct;46(4):1242-51.
  41. Wargo, A.R., Garver, K.A., Kurath, G. (2010) Virulence correlates with fitness in vivo for two M group genotypes of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Virology  Aug 15;404(1):51-8.
  42. Kurath, G., Garver, K.A., LaPatra, S.E., Purcell, M.K. (2010) Resistance of and protective immunity in Redfish Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) exposed to M type Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health Jun;22(2):129-39.
  43. VHSV Expert Panel (Garver, K.A. with 27 others) and Working Group. (2010) Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV IVb) risk factors and association measures derived by expert panel.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine 94:128-39
  44. Purcell, M. K., Garver, K. A., Conway, C., Elliott, D. G. and Kurath, G. (2009) Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Redfish Lake, Idaho. Journal of Fish Diseases 32:619–631.
  45. Hawley, L. and Garver, K. (2008).  Stability of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in freshwater and seawater at various temperatures. Dis Aquat Org, 82:171-178.
  46. Troyer, R.M., Garver, K.A., Ranson, J.C., Wargo, A. R., Kurath, G. (2008).  In vivo virus growth competition assays demonstrate equal fitness of fish rhabdovirus strains that co-circulate in aquaculture.Virus Res. No. 137, 179-188.
  47. Garver, K.A., Dwilow A.G., Richard, J., Booth, T.F., Beniac, D.R., and Souter, B.W. (2007) First detection of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) from Hamilton Harbour in Lake Ontario, Canada. Journal of Fish Disease, 30, 665-671.
  48. Garver, K, Batts, W.N., and Kurath,G (2006) Virulence comparisions of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) U and M genogroups in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss).  Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 18(4):232-243.  American Fisheries Society: 2006 Best Paper Awards
  49. Garver, K, Conway, C.M., and Kurath,G (2006) Introduction of translation stop codons into the viral glycoprotein gene in a fish DNA vaccine eliminates induction of protective immunity.  Marine Biotechnology 8(4):351-6.
  50. Kurath, G, Garver, K. A., Corbeil, S,Elliott, D. G., Anderson, E. D. LaPatra, S.E. (2005) Protective immunity and lack of histopathological damage two years after DNA vaccination against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in trout. Vaccine 24(3): 345-354.
  51. Garver, K, Conway, C.M., Elliott, D.G., and Kurath,G (2005) Analysis of DNA vaccinated fish reveals viral antigen in muscle, kidney and thymus, and transient histopathological changes. Marine Biotechnology 7:1-15.
  52. Garver, K., LaPatra, S.E., Kurath, G. (2004) Efficacy of an IHN virus DNA vaccine in chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon. Dis Aquat Org 64:13-22.
  53. Purcell, M., Kurath, G., Garver, K.A., Herwig, R., and Winton, J.R. (2004) Quantitative expression profiling of immune response genes in rainbow trout during IHNV infection or following vaccination. Fish Shellfish Immunol 17: 447-462.
  54. Garver, K.A., Troyer, R. M., and Kurath, G. (2003) Two distinct phylogenetic clades of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus overlap within the Columbia River basin. Dis. Aquat. Org. 55:175-185.
  55. Kurath, G., Garver, K.A., Troyer, R.M., Emmenegger, E.J., Einer-Jensen, K., and Anderson, E.D. (2003) Phylogeography of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in North America. J. Gen. Virol. 84:803-814.
  56. Mat-Arip, Y., Garver, K., Chen, C., Sheng, S., Shao, Z. and Guo, P. (2001) Three-dimensional interaction of phi29 pRNA Dimer probed by Chemical Modification interference, cryo-AFM, and cross-linking J. Biol. Chem., 276:32575-32584.
  57. Garver, K., and Guo, P.   (2000) Mapping the inter-RNA interaction of phi29 pRNA using site-specific photoaffinity crosslinking J. Biol. Chem. 275:2817-2824.
  58. Guo, P., Zhang, C., Chen, C., Garver, K. and Trottier, M.. (1998) Inter-RNA Interaction of Phage ø29 pRNA to Form A Hexameric Complex for Viral DNA Transportation. Mol. Cell, 2:149-155.
  59. Garver, K., and Guo, P.  (1997) Minimum pRNA sequence requirement for specific portal protein binding and DNA packaging of bacteriophage ø29. RNA, 3:1068-1079.
  60. Zhang, C., Garver, K. and Guo, P. (1995) Inhibition of phage ø29 assembly by antisense oligonucleotides targeting viral pRNA essential for DNA packaging. Virology 211:568-576.