Keshav D. Singh, Ph.D.
Remote Sensing, Phenomics and Agro-Ecosystem Resilience. Mainly working on Proximal and UAV based RGB, Thermal, Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imaging applications in the framework of Precision Agriculture and Plant Phenotyping.
Current research and/or projects
- Developing a robust digital imaging system for controlled and field-based environments phenotyping to support plant breeding program
- Engaged in advanced sensors technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and data-driven agriculture research to identify complex physiological traits
- Optical sensing technology for development of stress resistance high yielding cultivars in a changing climate (plant phenomics)
- High-throughput imaging capabilities for safe and effective uses of herbicides and fertilizers in field crops (precision agriculture)
- Retrieval of bio-chemical and bio-physical parameters from leaf and canopy spectra to estimate plant photosynthesis capacity (imaging spectroscopy)
- My research mainly integrates autonomous systems, AI models (machine/deep learning), and big-data analytics in digital agriculture to develop tools to promote growing crops in smarter and more sustainable way.
Research and/or project statements
Over last ten years, I gained expertise in high-throughput aerial imaging and digital agriculture to study horticulture, oilseed rape, legumes and cereal crop phenomics. I have developed an advanced calibration and imaging methodology to improve robustness of UAV-acquired remote sensing data to identify stress response by crops with high classification accuracy. As an Agrophysicist and UAV pilot my research area include Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) technology for plants health detection, resistance to biotic (pest, disease, weeds) and abiotic (drought, heat, cold) stresses, and nutrient status. It involves agronomic data processing, association of GHG emission, image-cube analysis, AI algorithms development, crops mapping and predictive analytics. My research focuses on applying innovative sensing technologies to advance the data science into traditional agricultural industry to facilitate the digital Ag revolution for global food security.
Professional activities / interests
- RPAS (UAV) Drone Pilot (Advanced Operations), Transport Canada
- Remote sensing methods for mapping and monitoring of vegetation and agricultural crops
- Target crops adaptability to changing agro-ecosystem (sustainable agriculture)
- Reviewing manuscripts for peer journals (Remote Sensing, Sensors and Agriculture)
- Mentoring diversified students and researchers
Education and awards
- Research Ass. (RA) at the University of Saskatchewan, SK, Canada
- Postdoctoral Fellow (Post-doc) at the University of California- Davis, CA, USA
- Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, IIT Bombay, IN
- Master of Technology (M.Tech.) in Engineering Physics, GGSIP University, IN
- Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Applied Physics, Delhi University, IN
- Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Physics (Hons.), Delhi University, IN
Honors and Awards:
- Member of Logistics Committee, NAPPN Phenomics planning, North America
- Best Poster Presentation Award, P2IRC Symposium, GIFS, Saskatoon, Canada
- Best Young Scientist Paper Competition, Agro-Geoinformatics, Fairfax, VA, USA
- Selected for Greenland GNSS (GNET) Workshop, GSFC, NASA, USA
- Selected for TUM Research Opportunities Week & DLR, Munich, Germany
- Awarded Full International Travel Support (ITS), DST, Govt. of India, IN
- Awarded International Commonwealth Fellowship (DFAIT–GSEP), Canada
- University Gold Medalist in Engineering Physics, GGSIP University, IN
- Certificate in Understanding Phenology with Remote Sensing, NASA, USA
- Attended Philosophy and Practice of University Teaching, USask, Canada
- Certificate in Drone Technology & GIS for Crop Agriculture, UCANR, UC Davis, CA, USA
- Certificate in Environmental Monitoring and Research with UAVs, UC Davis, CA, USA
- Certificate in Food+Ag Entrepreneurship Academy (AGEA’17), UC Davis, CA, USA
- Certificate in Learner–Centered Teaching, CEE, UC Davis, CA, USA
- Certificate in Ag Innovation Entrepreneurship Academy (AGEA’16), UC Davis, USA
- Certificate of HYPERSPECTRA Workshop, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, IN
International experience and/or work
Research Ass. (RA) at the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, SK, Canada [2018–2020]
Worked on UAV-based multidisciplinary projects which mainly included canola, wheat, and lentil crops phenotyping. My research focused on different canola genotypes seedpods maturity and shattering problem; nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in canola varieties; wheat cultivars phenotyping and yield prediction strategies using machine learning and statistical models; assessment of wheat stripe-rust in a nursery; evaluating different herbicides responses to dry down the lentils.
Post-doctoral Employee at the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California- Davis, CA, USA [2015–2017]
Worked on the greenhouse and UAV-based Hyperspectral Imaging technology in study of host selection by selected insects/pests and abilities to assess crop health via reflectance profiling in the framework of Precision Agriculture (detection of crop responses to biotic & abiotic stressors). Here, I have studied different horticultural crops and nut-fruit trees grows in the central valley, California. It included strawberry, soybean, tomato, gerbera, rice, almond and walnut orchard.
Assistant Professor at the Department of Physics, JECRC University, Jaipur, IN [Feb.–Jun. 2015]
Taught "Engineering Physics" at Graduate and Post-graduate level
Ph.D. Scholarship at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai by MHRD Government of India, IN [2009–2014]
Thesis: Spectral Unmixing of Hyperspectral Data in the Reflective and Emissive Domain: Terrestrial and Planetary Remote Sensing
Visiting Graduate Student (Ph.D.) Fellowship awarded by International Canadian Commonwealth Fellowship (DFAIT–GSEP), University of Western Ontario, ON, Canada [Mar.–Oct. 2011]
Research Project: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to study volcanic eruption in Mount Sinabung, Indonesia using JAXA-ALOS satellite data
Peer-reviewed Journals/Conference Proceedings:
- Singh, K.D., Duddu, H.S., Vail, S., Parkin, I., and Shirtliffe, S.J., “UAV-based Hyperspectral Imaging Technique to Estimate Canola (Brassica napus L.) Seedpods Maturity”, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing (CJRS), 2021, pp. 1-15, doi: 10.1080/07038992.2021.1881464
- Torres-Tello, J.W., Ko, S., Singh, K.D., and Shirtliffe, S.J., "Corrigendum to 'A novel approach to identify the spectral bands that predict moisture content in canola and wheat'", Biosystems Engineering, 2021, 210, pp. 91-103, doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2021.09.009
- Singh, K.D., Shirtliffe, S.J., and Duddu, H.S., “The Role Of Bi-Directional Reflectance Correction In UAV-based Hyperspectral Imaging To Improve Data Robustness”, 10th IEEE GRSS Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing: Evolution in Remote Sensing (WHISPERS), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2019, pp. 1–5, doi: 10.1109/WHISPERS.2019.8920842
- Singh, K.D., “Automated Spectral Mapping and Subpixel Classification in the Part of Thar Desert Using EO-1 Satellite Hyperion Data”, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 15(9), 2018, pp. 1437–1440, doi: 10.1109/LGRS.2018.2840486
- Singh, K.D., and Nansen, C., “Advanced Calibration to Improve Robustness of Drone-Acquired Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data”, 6th International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics, Fairfax VA, USA, 2017, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/Agro-Geoinformatics.2017.8047061
- Singh, K.D., and Ramakrishnan, D., “A comparative study of signal transformation techniques in automated spectral unmixing of infrared spectra for remote sensing applications”, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 38(5), 2017, pp. 1235–1257, doi: 10.1080/01431161.2017.1280625
- Singh, K.D., “Uncertainties in TIR Hyperspectral Image Cube Unmixing”, Universal Journal of Geoscience, 5(1), 2017, pp. 10–13, doi: 10.13189/ujg.2017.050102
- Nansen, C., Singh, K.D., Mian, A., Allison, B.J., and Simmons, C.W., “Using hyperspectral imaging to characterize consistency of coffee brands and their respective roasting classes”, Journal of Food Engineering, 190, 2016, pp. 34–39, doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2016.06.010
- Singh, K.D., and Ramakrishnan, D., “Uncertainties in Unmixing of Multi-phase Hyperspectral Data in Reflective Region: Effects of Texture and Fabric”, Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, 5(3), 2015, pp. 086–100, doi: https://doi.org/10.29150/jhrs.v5.3.p086-100
- Singh, K.D., and Ramakrishnan, D., “Non-Linear Spectral Unmixing of Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data”, In: IEEE Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing: Evolution in Remote Sensing (WHISPERS), Tokyo, Japan, 2015, pp. 1–4, doi: 10.1109/WHISPERS.2015. 8075505
- Gonzalez, P.J., Singh, K.D., and Tiampo, K.F., “Shallow Hydrothermal Pressurization before the 2010 Eruption of Mount Sinabung Volcano, Indonesia, Observed by use of ALOS Satellite Radar Interferometry”, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(8), 2014, pp. 1–17, doi: 10.1007/s00024-014-0915-7
- Ansari, K., Bae, T.S., Singh, K.D., and Aryal J., “Multivariate singular spectrum analysis of seismicity in the space–time-depth-magnitude domain: insight from eastern Nepal and the southern Tibetan Himalaya”, Journal of Seismology, 2022, 26, pp. 147–166, doi: 10.1007/s10950-021-10057-6
- Bharti, R., Ramakrishnan, D, and Singh, K.D., “Compositional Diversity of Near-, Far-side transitory zone around Naonobu, Webb and Sinus Successus craters: Inferences from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data”, Journal of Earth System Science, 123(1), 2014, pp. 233–246.
- Ramakrishnan, D., Bharti, R., Singh, K.D., and Nithya M., “Thermal Inertia Mapping and its Application in Mineral Exploration: Results from Mamandur Poly Metal Prospect, India”, Geophysical Journal International, 195(1), 2013, pp. 357–368.
- Ramakrishnan, D., Nithya, M., Singh, K.D., and Bharti, R., “A Field Technique for Rapid Lithological Discrimination and Ore Mineral Identification: Results from Mamandur Polymetal Deposit, India”, Journal of Earth System Science, 122(1), 2013, pp. 1–14.
- Singh, K.D., Ramakrishnan, D., and Mansinha, L., “Relevance of transformation techniques in rapid endmember identification and spectral unmixing: A hypespectral remote sensing perspective”, In: IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Munich, Germany, 2012, pp. 4066–4069, doi: 10.1109\IGARSS. 2012.6350516.
- Singh, K.D., Ramakrishnan, D., and Mansinha, L., “A novel method for automatic minerals identification and their abundance estimation for material type discrimination using hyperspectral data”, In: IEEE Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing: Evolution in Remote Sensing (WHISPERS), Shanghai, China, 2012, pp. 1–4, doi: 10.1109\WHISPERS.2012.6874310.
- Ramakrishnan, D., Nithya, M., Bharti, R., Kusuma, K. N., and Singh, K.D., ”Measurement of thermal properties of select intact and weathered granulites and their relationship to rock properties”, Geophysics, 77(3), 2012, pp. 63–73.
- Bharti, R., Ramakrishnan, D., and Singh, K.D., and Mullassery, N., “Relevance of mineral texture on bidirectional reflectance and emission spectroscopy: Implications for geological remote sensing”, In: IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Munich, Germany, 2012, pp. 3046–3049.
- Singh, K.D., Johnson, E.N., and Shirtliffe, S.J., “UAV-based Hyperspectral Imaging to Evaluate Different Herbicides Response in the Field Crop”, 43rd Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing (CJRS), Québec City, QC, Canada, Jul. 2022.
- Natarajan, M., Singh, K.D., George, J., and Ragupathy, R., “Developing a Low-cost Digital Imaging System for Plant Phenotyping using Raspberry Pi Computers”, ISCB-ISMB Digital Agriculture Conference, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, Jul. 2022.
- Wagner, M.H., Peddle, D.R., Singh, K.D., Neilson, J., and Herridge-Berry, S., “Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Potato Plant Nutrient Stress: A Laboratory Study of Leaf Reflectance Towards Designing Minimal Input Agricultural Systems”, 43rd Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing (CJRS), Québec City, QC, Canada, Jul. 2022.
- Singh, K.D., Johnson, E.N., Duddu, H.S., and Shirtliffe, S.J., “Airborne Hyper-spectral Imaging to classify different desiccants performance in Lentil (Lens culinaris) crop”, Weed Science Society of America (WSSA), USA, Feb. 2021.
- Singh, K.D., Duddu, H.S., and Shirtliffe, S.J., “Sorting Canola Genotypes on the basis of Maturity Timing using UAV-based Hyperspectral Imaging”, NAPPN Annual Conference, USA, Feb. 2021.
- Singh, K.D., Johnson, E.N., Duddu, H.S., and Shirtliffe, S.J., “Evaluating Different Herbicides Response in Lentils (Lens culinaris) through UAV-Based Hyperspectral Imaging”, 5th Annual P2IRC Symposium, GIFS, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, Oct. 2020.
- Tello, J.T., Singh, K.D., Ko, S.B., and Shirtliffe, S.J., “Transfer Learning from RGB to Hyperspectral Images by means of Pointwise Convolutions”, 5th Annual P2IRC Symposium, GIFS, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, Oct. 2020.
- Zoerb, B., Shirtliffe, S., Johnson, E., and Singh, K.D., “Assessing Herbicide Tolerance in Lentils (Lens culinaris) Using Hyperspectral Imagery”, Canadian Weed Science Society (CWSS), Nov. 2020.
- Shirtliffe, S.J., Duddu, H.S., Singh, K.D., Ha, T., Johnson, E., and Seungbum, R., “Utilizing crop imagery in crop science research”, Soils and Crops Workshop, University of Saskatchewan, SK, Canada, Mar. 2020.
- Attanayake, A.U., Shirtliffe, S.J., Johnson, E.N., Duddu, H.S., Singh, K.D., and Ha, T., “Modulated On-farm Response Surface Experiments: An approach for on-farm evidence-based precision agronomy”, 5th Annual P2IRC Symposium, GIFS, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, Oct. 2020.
- Singh, K.D., Duddu, H.S., and Shirtliffe, S.J., “UAV-Based Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques in Precision Agriculture and Plant Phenotyping”, 4th Annual P2IRC Symposium, GIFS, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, Oct. 2019.
- Singh, K.D., Duddu, H.S., Shirtliffe, S.J., and Noble, S., “Utilization of UAV-Based Hyperspectral Imaging Technique on Acquiring Phenotypic Characteristics of Prairie Field Crops”, 3rd Annual P2IRC Symposium, GIFS, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, 2018a.
- Singh, K.D., Duddu, H.S., Shirtliffe, S.J., and Noble, S., “Hyperspectral Analysis of Canola Pod Maturation at Different Phenological Stages”, Global Institute for Food Security (GIFS), Saskatoon, SK, Canada, 2018b.
- Singh, K.D., Nansen, C., Lange, E.D., and Starnes, R., “Studying Economical Crops Health using Airborne Technology for Agricultural Innovation and Sustainability in California”, 3rd Postdoctoral Research Symposium, UC Davis, CA, USA, 2017.
- Singh, K.D., Starnes, R., Kluepfel, D., and Nansen, C., “Qualitative Analysis of Walnut Trees Rootstock using Airborne Remote Sensing”, Sixth Annual Plant Sciences Symposium, UC Davis, CA, USA, 2017.
- Singh, K.D., “Airborne hyperspectral remote sensing in the real-time detection and management of wildfire”, AFSC Remote Sensing Workshop, UAF, Alaska, USA, 2017.
- Lange, E., Singh, K.D., Stewart, A., Murdoch, M., Starnes, R., and Nansen, C., “Detecting Lygus bug-induced stress in greenhouse cut flowers using remote sensing technology”, International Heteroptera Symposium, Seaside, CA, USA, 2017.
- Lange, E., Singh, K.D., Fowles, T., Stewart, A., Starnes, R., and Nansen, C., “Airborne remote sensing to manage almond nutrient status and resilience to biotic stresses”, Sixth Annual Plant Sciences Symposium, UC Davis, CA, USA, 2017.
- Singh, K.D., and Nansen, C., “Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in Detection of Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Plants for Precision Agriculture”, In: HyspIRI Science and Applications Workshop, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA, 2016.
- Singh, K.D., “Uncertainties in TIR Hyperspectral Image Cube Unmixing”, In: HyspIRI Science and Applications Workshop, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA, 2016.
- Singh, K.D., and Nansen, C., “Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in Detection of Biotic Stresses in Plants for Precision Agriculture”, 2nd Postdoctoral Research Symposium, UC Davis, CA, USA, 2016.
- SPECTRAL IMAGING ANALYSIS MODELS, AV Akademikerverlag GmbH & Co. KG, Germany (ISBN–13: 978-3-659-25032-3). (Oct.–2012)
- SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOTHERMOMETER, LAP – Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany (ISBN–13:978-3-8465-2514-2). (Oct.–2011)
- Member of Technical Science Advisory Committee (STB)
- Member of North American Plant Phenotyping Network (NAPPN)
- Member of Canadian Remote Sensing Society (CRSS)
- Member of International Society of Precision Agriculture (ISPA)
- Member of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
- Member of Permafrost Young Researchers Network (PYRN)