Jim Christian

Research Scientist

Current research and/or projects

My research concerns the global carbon cycle and climate change, feedbacks between ocean ecosystems and atmospheric trace gas concentrations, and anthropogenic impacts on the ocean such as ocean acidification and geoengineering through ocean fertilization.

Key publications

Séférian, R., S. Berthet, A. Yool, J. Palmiéri, L. Bopp, A. Tagliabue, L. Kwiatkowski, O. Aumont, J. Christian, J. Dunne, M. Gehlen, T. Ilyina, J.G. John, H. Li, M. Long, J.Y. Luo, H. Nakano, A. Romanou, J. Schwinger, C. Stock, Y. Santana-Falcón, Y. Takano, J. Tjiputra, H. Tsujino, M. Watanabe, T. Wu, F. Wu, and A. Yamamoto, 2020. Tracking improvement in simulated marine biogeochemistry between CMIP5 and CMIP6. Current Climate Change Reports, in press

Sastri, A.R., J.R. Christian, E.P. Achterberg, D. Atamanchuk, J.J.H. Buck, P. Bresnahan, P.J. Duke, W. Evans, S.F. Gonski, B. Johnson, S.K. Juniper, S. Mihaly, L.A. Miller, M. Morley, D. Murphy, S.-I. Nakaoka, T. Ono, G. Parker, K. Simpson, and T. Tsunoda, 2019. Perspectives on in situ sensors for ocean acidification research. Frontiers in Marine Science, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00653

Hayashida, H., J.R. Christian, A.M. Holdsworth, X. Hu, A.H. Monahan, E. Mortenson, P.G. Myers, O.G.J. Riche, T. Sou, and N.S. Steiner, 2019. CSIB v1 (Canadian Sea-ice Biogeochemistry): a sea-ice biogeochemical model for the NEMO community ocean modelling framework. Geoscientific Model Development 12: 1965–1990.

Swart, N.C., J.N.S. Cole, V.V. Kharin, M. Lazare, J.F. Scinocca, N.P. Gillett, J. Anstey, V. Arora, J.R. Christian, S. Hanna, Y. Jiao, W.G. Lee, F. Majaess, O.A. Saenko, C. Seiler, C. Seinen, A. Shao, M. Sigmond, L. Solheim, K. von Salzen, D. Yang, and B. Winter, 2019. The Canadian Earth System Model version 5 (CanESM5.0.3). Geoscientific Model Development 12: 4823–4873

Riche, O.G.J. and J.R. Christian, 2018. Ocean dinitrogen fixation and its potential effects on ocean primary production in Earth system model simulations of anthropogenic warming. Elementa 6: 16. doi: 10.1525/elementa.277

Christian, J.R., and J. Holmes, 2016. Changes in albacore tuna habitat in the northeast Pacific Ocean under anthropogenic warming. Fisheries Oceanography 25: 544-554

Séférian, R., M. Gehlen, L. Bopp, L. Resplandy, J. C. Orr, O. Marti, J. P. Dunne, J. R. Christian, S. C. Doney, T. Ilyina, K. Lindsay, P. Halloran, C. Heinze, J. Segschneider, and J. Tjiputra, 2016. Inconsistent strategies to spin up models in CMIP5: implications for ocean biogeochemical model performance assessment. Geoscientific Model Development  9: 1827-1851

Tesdal, J.-E., J.R. Christian, A.H. Monahan, and K. von Salzen, 2016. Sensitivity of modelled sulfate aerosol and its radiative effect on climate to ocean DMS concentration and air–sea flux. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16: 10847-10864

Tesdal, J.-E., J.R. Christian, A.H. Monahan, and K. von Salzen, 2016. Evaluation of diverse approaches for estimating DMS concentration and air-sea exchange at global scale. Environmental Chemistry 13: 390-412

Christian, J.R., 2014. Timing of the departure of ocean biogeochemical cycles from the preindustrial state. PLoS One 9, doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0109820

Anderson, T.R., J.R. Christian, and K.J. Flynn, 2014. Modeling DOM Biogeochemistry. pp. 635-667 in D.A. Hansell and C.A. Carlson, eds., Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, 2nd edition, Elsevier.

Schwinger, J., J.F. Tjiputra, C. Heinze, L. Bopp, J.R. Christian, M. Gehlen, T. Ilyina, C.D. Jones, D. Salas-Melia, J. Segschneider, R. Seferian, and I. Totterdell, 2014. Non-linearity of ocean carbon feedbacks in CMIP5 earth system models. Journal of Climate 27: 3869-3888

Deal, C.J., N. Steiner, J. Christian, J.C. Kinney , K. Denman, S. Elliott, G. Gibson, M. Jin, D. Lavoie, S. Lee, W. Lee, W. Maslowski, J. Wang, and E. Watanabe, 2014. Progress and challenges in biogeochemical modeling of the Pacific Arctic Region. pp. 393-445 in J.M. Grebmeier and W. Maslowski, eds. The Pacific Arctic Region: Ecosystem Status and Trends in a Rapidly Changing Environment. Springer.

Steiner, N.S., J.R. Christian, K. Six, A. Yamamoto, and M. Yamamoto-Kawai, 2014. Future ocean acidification in the Canada Basin and surrounding Arctic Ocean from CMIP5 earth system models. Journal of Geophysical Research 119, doi: 10.1002/2013JC009069

Arora, V.K., G.J. Boer, P. Friedlingstein, M. Eby, C.D. Jones, J.R. Christian, G. Bonan, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, P. Cadule, T. Hajima, T. Ilyina, K. Lindsay, J.F. Tjiputra, and T. Wu, 2013. Carbon-concentration and carbon-climate feedbacks in CMIP5 Earth system models. Journal of Climate 26: 5289–5314.

Steiner, N.S., W.G. Lee, and J. R. Christian, 2013. Enhanced gas fluxes in small sea ice leads and cracks - Effects on CO2 exchange and ocean acidification. Journal of Geophysical Research 118, doi: 10.1002/jgrc.20100

Christian, J.R. and M.G.G. Foreman, eds. 2013. Climate Trends and Projections for the Pacific Large Aquatic Basin. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3032. xi-113p.

Denman, K.L., J.R. Christian, N. Steiner, H.O. Pörtner, and Y. Nojiri, 2011. Potential impacts of future ocean acidification on marine ecosystems and fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 1019-1029.

Arora, V.K., J.F. Scinocca, G.J. Boer, J.R. Christian, K.L. Denman, G.M. Flato, V.V. Kharin, W.G. Lee, and W.J. Merryfield, 2011. Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases. Geophysical Research Letters 38, doi: 10.1029/2010GL046270.

Christian, J.R., 2011. The North Pacific Ocean in the enhanced greenhouse: simulations with the Canadian Earth System Model CanESM1. pp. 9-15 in M.G.G. Foreman and Y. Yamanaka, eds., Report of Working Group 20 on Evaluations of Climate Change Projections. PICES Sci. Rep. No. 40.

Christian, J.R., V.K. Arora, G.J. Boer, C.L. Curry, K. Zahariev, K.L. Denman, G.M. Flato, W.G. Lee, W.J. Merryfield, N.T. Roulet, and J. F. Scinocca, 2010. The global carbon cycle in the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM1): Preindustrial control simulation. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, doi:10.1029/2008JG000920

Arora, V.K., G.J. Boer, C.L. Curry, J.R. Christian, K. Zahariev, K.L. Denman, G.M. Flato, J.F. Scinocca, W.J. Merryfield, and W.G. Lee, 2009. The effect of terrestrial photosynthesis down regulation on the twentieth-century carbon budget simulated with the CCCma Earth System Model. Journal of Climate 22: 6066-6088

Zahariev, K., J.R. Christian, and K.L. Denman, 2008. A global ocean carbon model with new parameterizations of iron limitation, calcification, and N2 fixation: preindustrial, historical, and fertilization simulations. Progress in Oceanography 77: 56-82