Howard Freeland

Research Scientist
Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Current research and/or projects

My field of research is physical oceanography.

Research and/or project statements

Key publications

  1. Freeland, H., Roemmich, S. Garzoli, P.-Y. LeTraon, M. Ravichandran, S. Riser, V. Thierry, S. Wijffels, M. Belbéoch, J. Gould, F. Grant, M. Ignazewski, B. King, B. Klein, K. Mork, B. Owens, S. Pouliquen, A. Sterl, T. Suga, M. Suk, P. Sutton, A. Troisi, P. Vélez-Belchi, J. Xu. Argo – A decade of progress. White paper submitted to OceanObs’09 and to appear in a series of white papers emerging from the OceanObs’09 Workshop.
  2. Belbéoch, M., H. Viola, H. Freeland, C. Clarke, D. Meldrum, E. Charpentier, K. Alverson, P. Dexter, J.-L. Fellous. The JCOMM in situ observing programme support centre: a decade of progress and remaining challenges. White paper submitted to OceanObs’09 and to appear in a series of white papers emerging from the OceanObs’09 Workshop.
  3. Roemmich, D., L. Boehme, H. Claustre, H. Freeland, M. Fukasawa, G. Goni, J. Gould, N. Gruber, M. Hood, E. Kent, R. Lumpkin, S. Smith and P. Testor. 2009. Integrating the ocean observing system: mobile platforms. Plenary talk at OceanObs’09, to appear in the meeting volume.
  4. Reinecker, M., T. Awaji, M. Balmaseda, B. Barnier, D. Behringer, M. Bell, M. Bourassa, P. Brasseur, L.-A. Breivik, J. Carton, J. Cummings, E. Dombrowsky, C. Fairall, N. Ferry, G. Forget, H. Freeland, W. Gregg, S. Griffies, K. Haines, E. Harrison, P. Heimbach, M. Kamachi, E. Kent, T. Lee, P.-Y. Le Traon, M. McPhaden, M. Martin, P. Oke, M. Palmer, E. Remy, A. Rosati, A. Schiller, D. Smith, D. Stammer, N. Sugiura, K. Trenberth and Y. Xue. 2009. Synthesis and assimilation systems: essential adjuncts to the Global Ocean Observing System. Plenary talk at OceanObs’09, to appear in the meeting volume.
  5. Trenberth, K., M. Balmaseda, N. Bindoff, J. Church, H. Freeland, G. Lagerloef, R. Nerem, M. Palmer, S. Rintoul, D. Roemmich, C. Sabine, D. Stammer and P. Stott. 2009. Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) and attribution and prediction of climate: Progress since the Fourth Assessment. Plenary talk at OceanObs’09, to appear in the meeting volume.
  6. Balmaseda, M., Y. Fujii, O. Alves, T. Lee, M. Rienecker, T. Rosati, D. Stammer, Y. Xue, H. Freeland, M. J. McPhaden, L. Goddard and C. Coelho. 2009. Role of the ocean observing system in an end-to-end seasonal forecasting system. Plenary talk at OceanObs’09, to appear in the meeting volume.
  7. Roemmich, D., M. Belbéoch, H. Freeland, S. Garzoli, J. Gould, F. Grant, M. Ignaszewski, B. King, B. Klein, P.-Y. LeTraon, K.-A. Mork, B. Owens, M. Ravichandran, S. Riser, A. Sterl, T. Suga, M.-S. Suk, P. Sutton, V. Thierry, P. Vélez-Belchi, S. Wijffels and J. Xu. 2009. Argo – the challenge of continuing 10 years of progress. Oceanography 22(3), 46-55.
  8. Freeland, H. J. and D. Gilbert. 2009. Estimate of the steric contribution to global sea-level rise from a comparison of the WOCE one-time survey with the 2006-2008 Argo observations. Atmosphere-Ocean 47(4), 292-298.
  9. Hiromichi Ueno, Howard J. Freeland, William R. Crawford, Hiroji Onishi, Eitarou Oka, and Toshio Suga. 2009. Anticyclonic eddies in the Alaskan Stream. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 39(4), 934-951.
  10. Freeland, H.J. 2009. Argo – an ocean observing network. McGraw Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology.
  11. Freeland, H.J., D. Roemmich, J. Gould and M. Belbéoch. 2007. Argo – a global ocean observing system for the 21st century. A chapter in the GEO book “The Big Picture” to be presented to Ministers at an Environmental Summit meeting.
  12. Freeland, H.J. 2007. A short history of Ocean Station Papa and Line-P. Prog. in Oceanog. 75, 120-125.
  13. Cummins P. & H. J. Freeland. 2007. Variability of the N. Pacific Current and its bifurcation. Prog. in Oceanog. 75, 253-265.
  14. Whitney, F., H. J. Freeland and M. Robert. 2007. Decreasing oxygen levels in the interior waters of the subarctic Pacific. Prog. in Oceanog. 75, 179-199.
  15. Batten, S. and H. J. Freeland. 2007. Plankton populations at the bifurcation of the North Pacific Current. Fisheries Oceanog. 16(6), 536-546.
  16. Freeland, Howard. 2006. What Proportion of the North Pacific Current finds its way into the Gulf of Alaska? Atmosphere-Ocean 44(4), 321-330.
  17. Laîné, A., W. W. Hsieh and H. J. Freeland. 2006. Forcing mechanisms controlling surface and subsurface temperature anomalies along Line-P, Northeast Pacific Ocean. Atmosphere-Ocean 44(2),163-176.
  18. Joseph, S. and H. J. Freeland. 2005. Salinity variability in the Arabian Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(9), L09607 10.1029/2005GL022972.
  19. Li, Michelle, P. G. Myers and H. Freeland. 2005 An examination of historical mixed layer depths along Line-P in the Gulf of Alaska. Geoph. Res. Lett. 32(5), L05613 10.1029/2004GL021911.
  20. Freeland, H. J. and P. Cummins. 2005. Argo: a new tool for environmental assessment and monitoring of the world’s oceans. Progress in Oceanography 64(1), 31-44.
  21. Fukasawa M., H. J. Freeland, R. Perkin, T. Watanabe, H. Uchida and A. Nishina. 2004. Bottom Water Warming in the North Pacific Ocean. Nature, 247, 825-827.
  22. Gould, J., D. Roemmich, S. Wijffels, H. Freeland, M. Ignaszewsky, X. Jianping, S. Pouliquen, Y. Desaubies, U. Send, K. Radhakrishnan, K. Takeuchi, K. Kim, M. Danchenkov, P. Sutton, B. King, B. Owens and S. Riser , 2004. Argo Profiling Floats Bring New Era of In Situ Ocean Observations. EoS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 85(19), 11 May 2004.
  23. Freeland, H. J. and R. J. Keeley. 2004. Project Argo - Recent Developments, published in the bulletin of the CNC-SCOR.
  24. Thomson, R.E. and H. J. Freeland. 2003. Topographic steering of a mid-depth drifter in an eddy-like circulation region south and east of the Hawaiian Ridge. J. Geophys. Res. 108(C11), 5-1 to 5-7.
  25. Freeland, H.J., G. Gatien A. Huyer and R.L. Smith. 2003. A cold halocline in the northern California Current: an invasion of subarctic water. Geophys. Res. Let. 30(3), 1141, doi:10.1029/2002GL016663, 2003.
  26. Freeland, H.J. and R. J. Keeley. 2003. A DFO Antarctic Research Program? CMOS Bulletin 31(1), 5.
  27. Hill, K.L., A.J. Weaver, H.J. Freeland and A.S. Bychkov. 2003. Evidence of change in the Sea of Okhotsk: Implications for the North Pacific. Atmosphere-Ocean 41(1), 49-63.
  28. Freeland, H.J. 2002. The Argo Armada. Newsletter of the Canadian Antarctic Research Network 15, 1-4.
  29. Freeland, H.J. and R. J. Keeley. 2002. The Argo Armada – how far has it come. CMOS Bulletin, 30(5), 135-138.
  30. Uchida, H., M. Fukasawa and H. J. Freeland. 2002. WHP P01 Revisit Data Book. Published by JAMSTEC, Yokosuka, Japan, March 2002, 73pp.
  31. Freeland, H.J. 2002. The heat flux across Line-P: 1996-1999. Atmosphere-Ocean 40(1), 80-89.
  32. Roemmich, D., O. Boebel, Y. Desaubies, H. Freeland, B. King, P.-Y. LeTraon, R. Molinari, W. B. Owens, S. Riser, U. Send, K. Takeuchi, S. Wijffels. 2001. Argo: the global array of profiling floats A Chapter in: Observing the Oceans in the 21st Century C. Koblinsky and N. Smith (eds.), published by the Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, Australia, 604 pp.
  33. Gould, W.J. and co-authors in alphabetical order, 2001: Hydrographic Observations. A Chapter in: Observing the Oceans in the 21st Century C. Koblinsky and N. Smith (eds.), published by the Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, Australia, 604 pp.
  34. Freeland, H. J. 2001. Observations of the flow of abyssal water through the Samoa Passage. 2001. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 31(8), 2273-2279.
  35. Freeland, H.J. 2000. El Niño and La Niña – chapters for “The Encyclopaedia of British Columbia” published in June 2000.
  36. Freeland, H.J. and F.A. Whitney. 2000. Climatic Changes: Gulf of Alaska. A review published in a volume entitled The Seas at the Millennium: An environmental Evaluation, Volume II Global Issues and Processes, edited by Charles Sheppard, Elsevier Science Ltd.
  37. Freeland, H.J. 2000. The 1997/98 El Niño, the View From Line-P. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations, Reports 41, 56-61.
  38. Beaubien, E.G. and H.J. Freeland. 2000. Spring phenology trends in Alberta, Canada: Links to Ocean Temperature. International J. of Biomet. 44(2), pp. 53-59.
  39. Thomson, R.E. and H.J. Freeland. 1999. Lagrangian Measurement of Mid-depth Currents in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters 26(20), 3125-3128.
  40. Freeland, H.J. and R.E. Thomson. 1999. The El Niño signal along the west coast of Canada – Temperature, salinity and velocity. In PICES Scientific Report #10, edited by Freeland, Peterson and Tyler.
  41. Whitney, F. and H.J. Freeland. 1999. Variability in upper ocean water properties in the NE Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. Part II. 46(11-12), 2351-2370.
  42. McKinnell, S.M., H.J. Freeland and S.D. Groulx. 1999. Assessing the northern diversion. Fisheries Oceanography 8(2), 104-114.
  43. Freeland, H.J and R. Beamish. 1998. The Changing Pacific. CMOS Bulletin 26(6), 155-160.
  44. Wong, C.S., R.J. Matear, H.J. Freeland, F.A. Whitney and A.S. Bychkov. 1998. . WOCE survey line P1W in the Sea of Okhotsk. 2. CFCs and the formation rate of intermediate water. J. Geophys. Res. 103(C8), 15624-15639.
  45. Freeland, H.J., A.S. Bychkov, F. Whitney, C. Taylor, C.S. Wong and G.I. Yurasov. 1998. WOCE survey line P1W in the Sea of Okhotsk. 1. Oceanographic data description. J. Geoph. Res. 103(C8), 15613-15623.
  46. Freeland, H.J. K.L. Denman, C.S. Wong, F. Whitney and R. Jacques. 1997. Evidence of change in the N.E. Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. 44(12), 2117-2129.
  47. Bychkov, A.S., P. Ya. Tischenko, K.A. Rogachev, C.S. Wong, H.J. Freeland, E.C. Carmack and R.J. Matear. 1996. Hydrochemistry of the Sea of Okhotsk: Reflections of mesoscale physical processes. In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Okhotsk Sea and Sea Ice. (Ed. K. Shirasawa) Okhotsk Sea & Cold Ocean Research Association, Mombetsu, 324-330.
  48. Freeland, H.J. 1994. Ocean circulation at and near Cobb Seamount. Deep-Sea Res. 41(11/12), 1715-1732.
  49. Freeland, H.J. 1993. Intense currents in the Deep North-East Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 23(8), 1872-1876.
  50. Cummins, P.F. and H.J. Freeland. 1993. Observations and modelling of wind-driven currents in the Northeast Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 23, 488-502.
  51. Denman, K.L., H.J. Freeland and J.F. Garrett. 1992. Climate change in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, Part 1: Atmospheric and oceanic evidence. North Pacific marine science Organization (PICES), PICES Scientific Workshop, Seattle, 10-13 Dec. 1991, Part A - Summary Report and Review Papers.
  52. Reynaud, T., R.G. Ingram, H.J. Freeland and A.J. Weaver. 1992. Propagation of coastal trapped waves under an ice cover in Hudson Bay. Atmosphere-Ocean 30(4),593-620.
  53. Freeland, H.J. 1992. The physical oceanography of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Pages 10-14 of proceedings of a symposium on "The Ecology, Status and Conservation of Sea and Shoreline Birds on the West Coast of Vancouver Island", eds. K. Vermeer, R.W. Butler and K. H. Morgan. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper #75, Ottawa, Ont. 1992.
  54. Dower, J., H.J. Freeland and K.S. Juniper. 1992. A strong biological response to oceanic flow past Cobb Seamount. Deep-Sea Res. 39(7/8), 1139-1145.
  55. Foreman, M.G.G. and H.J. Freeland. 1991. A comparison of techniques for tide removal from ship-mounted acoustic Doppler measurements along the southwest coast of Vancouver Island. J. Geophys. Res. 96(C9), 17007-17021.
  56. Freeland, H.J. 1990. The flow of a coastal current past a blunt headland. Atmosphere-Ocean 28(3), 285-302.
  57. Church, J.A., A.J. Clark, N.J. White, H.J. Freeland and R.L. Smith. 1990. Energy conservation in the Australian Coastal Experiment coastal trapped wave calculations. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 20(7), 1113-1114.
  58. Freeland H.J. 1990. Sea-surface temperatures along the coast of British Columbia: Regional evidence for a warming trend. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47(2), 346-350.
  59. Freeland H.J. 1989. Observations of the low-frequency circulation off the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, in Poleward Flows Along Eastern Ocean Boundaries, edited by S. Neshyba and C. Mooers, Springer-Verlag.
  60. Freeland H.J. and P. McIntosh. 1989. The vorticity balance on the southern British Columbia continental shelf. Atmosphere-Ocean, 27(4), 643-657.
  61. Denman K.L., H.J. Freeland and D.L. Mackas. 1989. Comparison of time scales for biomass transfer up the marine food web and coastal transport processes. in, R.J. Beamish and G.A. McFarlane (eds) Effects of Ocean Variability on Recruitment and an Evaluation of Parameters Used in Stock Assessment. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. & Aquat. Sci. 108.
  62. Freeland H.J. 1988. Diurnal coastal trapped waves on the east Australian continental shelf. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 18(4), 690-694.
  63. Freeland H.J. 1988. Derived Lagrangian statistics on the Vancouver Island continental shelf and implications for salmon migration. Atmosphere-Ocean 26(2), 267-281.
  64. Freeland H.J. 1987. Oceanic eddy transports and satellite altimetry. Nature 326, 524.
  65. Stacey M.W., S. Pond, P.H. LeBlond, H.J. Freeland, and D.M. Farmer. 1987. An analysis of the low-frequency current fluctuations in the Strait of Georgia, from June 1984 to January 1985, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 17(3), 326-342.
  66. Freeland H.J. and J.A. Church. 1987. The origin of the ACE coastal trapped wave field. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 17(3), 289-300.
  67. Church, J.A., N.J. White, A.J. Clarke, H.J. Freeland and R.L. Smith. 1986. Coastal Trapped Waves on the Australian Continental Shelf. Part II: Model Verification. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16(11), 1945-1958.
  68. Church J.A., H.J. Freeland and R.L. Smith. 1986. Coastal Trapped Waves on the Australian Continental Shelf. Part I: Propagation of Modes. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16(11), 1929-1943.
  69. Freeland H.J., F.M. Boland, J.A. Church, A.J. Clarke, A. Forbes, A. Huyer, R.L. Smith, R.O.R.Y. Thompson and N.J. White. 1986. The Australian Coastal Experiment: A search for coastal trapped waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16(7), 1230-1249.
  70. Denman K.L. and H.J. Freeland. 1985. Correlation scales, objective mapping and a statistical test of geostrophy over the continental shelf. J. Mar. Res. 43(3), 517-539.
  71. Thomson R.E., H.J. Freeland and L.F. Giovando. 1984. Long term sea-surface temperature variations along the British Columbia Coast. Trop. Ocean-Atmos. Newsletter #26, 9-11.
  72. Yao T., H.J. Freeland and L.A. Mysak. 1984. A comparison of low frequency current observations off B.C. with coastal trapped wave theory. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 14(1), 22-34.
  73. Freeland H.J. 1984. The partition of internal tidal motions in Knight Inlet, British Columbia. Atmosphere-Ocean, 22(2), 144-150.
  74. Freeland H.J., W.R. Crawford and R.E. Thomson. 1984. Currents along the Pacific coast of Canada. Atmosphere-Ocean, 22(2), 151-172.
  75. Freeland H.J. and L.F. Giovando. 1984. The 1982-83 Pacific warm event off British Columbia. Trop. Ocean-Atmos. Newsletter #23, 18-19.
  76. Farmer D.M. and H.J. Freeland. 1983. The physical oceanography of fjords. Progress in Oceanography, 12(2), 147-220.
  77. Freeland H.J. 1983. A seasonal upwelling event observed off the west coast of B.C., Canada. In, Coastal Oceanography edited by Gade, Edwards & Svendsen, Univ. of Bergen, Norway.
  78. Denman K.L., H.J. Freeland and D.L. Mackas. 1982. An upwelling gyre off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Lighthouse, edition #26, November.
  79. Freeland H.J. and K.L.Denman. 1982. A topographically controlled upwelling centre off southern Vancouver Island. J. Mar. Res. 40(4), 1069-1093.
  80. Freeland H.J. and L.F. Giovando. 1982. Unusual sea surface temperatures off the Pacific N.W. in 1981. Coastal Oceanography and Climatology News, 4(2), 16-17.
  81. Denman K.L., D.L. Mackas and H.J. Freeland. 1981. Persistent upwelling and meso-scale zones of high productivity off the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. In, Coastal Upwelling, edited by F. Richards.
  82. Freeland H.J. 1980. The hydrography of Knight Inlet in the light of Long's model of fjord circulation. In, Fjord Oceanography, edited by Freeland, Farmer and Levings.
  83. Freeland H.J. and D.M. Farmer. 1980. Circulation and energetics of a deep strongly-stratified inlet. Cdn. Jour. Fish. & Aquat. Sci. 37(9), 1398-1410.
  84. Freeland H.J. 1979. Tidal analysis and the energy budget of a deep strongly stratified inlet. Proc. of Symposium on Long Waves in the Ocean. Ottawa, 1979.
  85. The Mode Group. 1978. The Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment. Deep-sea Res. 25(10), 859-910. (This is a many authored paper, Freeland contributed as much as anyone else to this paper, more than most, and wrote the first draft.)
  86. Riser S.C., H.J. Freeland and H.T. Rossby. 1978. Meso-scale motions near the deep western boundary of the N. Atlantic. Deep-sea Res. 25(12), 1179-1191.
  87. Evans D. and H.J. Freeland. 1977. Variations in the Earth's Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages? Science 198 (4 Nov.), 528-530.
  88. Freeland H.J. and W.J. Gould. 1976. Objective analysis of meso- scale ocean circulation features. Deep-sea Res. 23(10), 915-923.
  89. Freeland H.J., P.B. Rhines and H.T. Rossby. 1975. Statistical observations of the trajectories of neutrally buoyant floats in the N. Atlantic. J. Mar. Res. 33(3), 383-404.