Eva Enders

Image Enders, Eva
Research Scientist

Riverine Ecology

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Current research and/or projects

DFO’s Riverine Ecology Laboratory maintains broad research interests in conservation biology, ecophysiology, fish behaviour and bioenergetics, and aquatic ecology to provide science advice for DFO’s Species at Risk, Fisheries Protection, and Aquatic Invasive Species programs. Freshwater fishes are used as research models for experiments conducted in both the laboratory and the field.

We have several ongoing research projects in Lake Winnipeg including a large-scale fish tagging project to study habitat use and movement of several fish species (Bigmouth Buffalo, Channel Catfish, Common Carp, Lake Sturgeon, Walleye) in the basin comprising the Red, Assiniboine and Winnipeg rivers, a juvenile fish survey in the literal and pelagic zone as well as a bathymetry and habitat survey.

Several of our projects are focussing on Species at Risk in particular on Rocky Mountain Sculpin, Western Silvery Minnow, Westslope Cutthroat Trout, and Carmine Shiner. We are also interested in the impact of Aquatic Invasive Species on the ecosystem and are working on a collaborative study with Ducks Unlimited in Delta Marsh on Lake Manitoba in the frame of the Common Carp Exclusion project.

In regards to habitat assessment, we are developing a user-friendly modelling tool to automate production of bioenergetics based habitat suitability curves for instream flow assessments in a collaborative project with Jordan Rosenfeld and Brent Eaton from University of British Columbia. 

Research and/or project statements

My research areas include fish ecology, fish and habitat conservation and restoration, and environmental impact assessments of anthropogenic flow and climate changes on fish populations. I am particularly interested in issues regarding (1) the winter biology of freshwater fishes in respect to habitat use and availability, energetic costs of overwintering, survival, and activity patterns, (2) fish passage through fishways and culverts, and (3) the effects of turbulence on fish behaviour and energetics.

Professional activities / interests

Professor at:

  • University of Alberta

Education and awards

PhD Fish Ecology, Université de Montréal

MSc Fisheries Science and Hydrobiology , University of Hamburg, Germany

Key publications

  1. Caskenette, A.,  E.C. Enders, D.A. Watkinson & D. Wrubleski (2018) Partial exclusion of spawning Cyprinus carpio improves marsh habitat at the cost of increased population growth. Ecological Modelling 385:58-64 doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2018.07.005
  2. Kraus, R.T., C.M. Holbrook, C.S. Vandergoot, T.R. Stewart, M.D. Faust, D. Watkinson, C. Charles, M. Pegg, E.C. Enders & C.C. Krueger (2018) Evaluation of acoustic telemetry grids for determining aquatic animal movement and survival. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 9(6): 1489-1502. doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.1299
  3. Macnaughton, C.J., C. Kovachik, C. Charles & E.C. Enders (2018) Using the shuttlebox experimental design to determine temperature preference for juvenile Westslope Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) Conservation Physiology, 6: coy018, https://doi.org/10.1093/conphys/coy018
  4. Deslauriers, D., J.C. Svendsen, J. Genz, A.J. Wall, H. Baktoft, E.C. Enders & W.G. Anderson (2018) Environmental calcium and variation in yolk sac size influence swimming performance in larval lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Journal of Experimental Biology. jeb.164533 doi:10.1242/jeb.164533
  5. DFO (2017) Review of Habitat Suitability Indices (HSIs) for priority and common fish species in the Athabasca oil sands region. Canadian Science Advisory Secretary Science Response. 2017/017.
  6. Mochnacz, N., B.C. Kissinger, D. Deslauriers, M. Guzzo, E.C. Enders, G.A. Anderson, M. Docker, D. Isaak & J. Treberg (2017) Comparing metabolic rate estimates measured from juvenile Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) using laboratory- versus field-based intermittent-flow respirometry. Conservation Physiology. 5(1):cox 048  doi:10.1093/conphys/cox
  7. Enders, E.C., D.A. Watkinson, H. Ghamry, K.H. Mills & W.G. Franzin (2017) Fish age and size distributions and species composition in a large, hydropeaking Prairie River. River Research and Applications. 33(8):1246-1256. doi:10.1002/rra.3173
  8. Struthers, D., L.F.G. Gutowsky, E.C. Enders, K.E. Smokorowski, D.A. Watkinson, A. T. Silva, M. Cvetkovic, E. Bibeau & S.J. Cooke (2017) Factors influencing the spatial ecology of Lake Sturgeon and Walleye within an impounded reach of the Winnipeg River. Environmental Biology of Fishes 100(7):1-18.
  9. Kissinger, B.C., J. Bystriansky, N. Czehryn, E.C. Enders, J. Treberg, J.D. Reist, E. Whitmore, W.G. Anderson (2017) Environment-phenotype interactions: influences of brackish-water rearing on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) physiology. Environmental Biology of Fishes.100(7):1-18.
  10. Murray, L., Rennie, M.D., Svendsen, J.C. and Enders, E.C. (2017) Effect of nanosilver on metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): an investigation using different respirometric approaches. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. doi:10.1002/etc.3827
  11. Pandit, S.N., L. Koirala; B.M. Maitland; M. Poesch and E.C. Enders  (2017) Climate change risks, extinction debt, and conservation implications for an endangered freshwater fish Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus), Science of The Total Environment, 598, 1-11.
  12. Murray, L., M.D. Rennie, J.S. Svendsen & E.C. Enders (2017) Effect of nanosilver on metabolism in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): An investigation using different respirometric approaches: Nanosilver effect on fish metabolism. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 32(8):1810-1808.
  13. Murray, L., M.D. Rennie, J.S. Svendsen & E.C. Enders (2017) Effects of respirometry methods on cortisol release in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Fish Biology. 90(5): 2206–2213.
  14. Struthers, D., L. Gutowsky, E.C. Enders, K.E. Smokorowski, D.A. Watkinson, E. Bibeau, S.J. Cooke (2017) Evaluating riverine hydrokinetic turbine operations relative to the spatial ecology of wild fishes. Journal of Ecohydraulics 2: 53-67.
  15. Enders, E.C., T. Castro-Santos, R.W.J. Lacey (2017) The effects of horizontally- and vertically-oriented baffles on flow structure and swimming performance of upstream migrating fish. Journal of Ecohydraulics 2: 38-52.
  16. Wilkes, M., E.C. Enders, A. Silvia, M. Acreman, I. Maddock (2017) Habitat selection by juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in turbulent flow. Journal of Ecohydraulics. 2: 16-27.
  17. Murray, L., M.D. Rennie, E.C. Enders, K. Pleskach, J. Martin (2017) Effect of nanosilver on cortisol release and morphometrics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. doi:10.1002/etc.369
  18. DFO (2016) Review of Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) input parameters and model results for the Meadowbank Gold Mine Project. Canadian Science Advisory Secretary Science Response. 2016/038.
  19. Pandit, S.N., J. Kolasa, K. Cottenie & E.C. Enders (2016) The role of local and regional processes on population synchrony along the gradients of habitat specialization. Ecosphere. 7(5): e01217.10.1002/ecs2.1217.
  20. Treberg, J.A, S.S. Killen, T. J. MacCormack, S. Lamarre & E.C. Enders (2016) Estimates of metabolic rate and major constituents of metabolic demand in fishes under field conditions: Methods, proxies, and new perspectives. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A. 202: 10-22.
  21. Enders, E.C. & D. Boisclair (2016) Effects of environmental fluctuations on fish metabolism: Atlantic salmon Salmo salar as a case study. Journal of Fish Biology 88: 344-358.
  22. Carr, M., D.A. Watkinson, J.C. Svendsen, E.C. Enders, J. Long & K.-E. Lindenschmidt (2015) Geospatial modelling of the Birch River: distribution of Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) in Geomorphic Response Units (GRU). International Review of Hydrobiology 100: 1-12.
  23. Oligny-Hébert, H., C. Senay, E.C. Enders & D. Boisclair (2015) Effects of diel temperature fluctuation on the standard metabolic rate of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): influence of acclimation temperature and provenience. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 72: 1306-1315.
  24. DFO (2015) Review of the applicability of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and Habitat Assessment Tool (HAT) for assessment of Westslope Cutthroat Trout habitat characteristics and associated productivity. Canadian Science Advisory Secretary Science Response 2015/034.
  25. DFO (2014) Science review of the Tazi Twé Hydroelectric Project environmental impact statement. Canadian Science Advisory Secretary Science Response 2014/048.
  26. Larocque, S.M., C. Hatry & E.C. Enders (2014) Development of habitat suitability indices and bioenergetics models for Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus). Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3097: vi + 57 p.
  27. Svendsen, J.C., J. Genz, W.G. Anderson, J.A. Stol, D.A. Watkinson & E.C. Enders (2014) Evidence of circadian rhythm, oxygen regulation capacity, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between forced and spontaneous maximal metabolic rates in Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. PLoS ONE 9: e94693.
  28. Beauregard, D., E.C. Enders & D. Boisclair (2013) Consequences of circadian fluctuations in water temperature on the standard metabolic rate of Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 70: 1072-1081.
  29. Stol, J.A., J.C. Svendsen & E.C. Enders (2013) Determining the thermal preferences of Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) and Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) using an automated shuttlebox. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 3038: vi + 23 pp.
  30. DFO (2013) A Science-Based Framework for Assessing the Response of Fisheries Productivity to State of Species or Habitats. Canadian Science Advisory Secretary Advisory Report 2013/067.
  31. DFO (2012) Review of downstream spatial boundaries for fish and fish habitat assessment areas, Site C Hydroelectric project. Canadian Science. Advisory Secretary Science Response. 2012/017.
  32. Enders, E.C., M.H. Gessel, J.J. Anderson & J.G. Williams (2012) Effects of decelerating and accelerating flows on juvenile salmonid behavior. Transaction of the American Fisheries Society. 141: 357-364.
  33. Lacey, R.W.J., V.S. Neary, J.C. Liao, E.C. Enders & H.M. Tritico (2012) The IPOS framework: Linking fish swimming performance in altered flows from laboratory experiments to rivers. River Research and Applications. 28: 429-443.
  34. Enders, E.C., M.H. Gessel & J.G. Williams (2009) Development of successful fish passage structures for downstream migrants requires knowledge of their behavioural response to accelerating flow. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.66: 2109-2117.
  35. Enders, E.C., M.L. Roy, M. Ovidio, E.J. Hallot, C. Boyer, F. Petit & A.G. Roy (2009) Does turbulence affect the habitat choice of Atlantic salmon parr? North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 30: 1819-1830.
  36. Enders, E.C., D.A. Scruton & K.D. Clarke (2009) The ‘Natural Flow Paradigm’ and Atlantic salmon - Moving from concept to practice. River Research and Applications. 25: 2-15.
  37. Stickler, M., E.C. Enders, C.J. Pennell, D. Cote, K. Alfredsen & D.A. Scruton (2008) Habitat use of Atlantic salmon parr in a dynamic winter environment: The influence of anchor ice dams. Journal of Fish Biology.73: 926-944.
  38. Enders, E.C., C.J. Pennell, R.K. Booth & D.A. Scruton (2008) Energetics related to upstream migration of Atlantic salmon in vertical slot fishways. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2800: v + 22 pp.
  39. Enders, E.C. , M. Stickler, C.J. Pennell, D. Cote, K. Alfredsen & D.A. Scruton (2008) Seasonal variations in behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon parr in relation to water discharge and temperature during winter in a small, steep river. Hydrobiologia. 609: 37-44.
  40. Stickler, M., E.C. Enders, C.J. Pennell, D. Cote, K. Alfredsen & D.A. Scruton (2008) Stream gradient-related movement and growth of Atlantic salmon parr during winter. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 137: 371-385.
  41. Ovidio, M., E.C. Enders, E.J. Hallot, M.L. Roy, J.C. Philippart, F. Petit, A.G. Roy (2007) Mobility patterns of Atlantic salmon parr: A telemetry study at high temporal resolution. Aquatic Living Resources. 20: 95-101.
  42. Enders, E.C., C.J. Pennell, K.E. Smokorowski, B. Sellars & D.A. Scruton (2007) Habitat use and associated energy expenditures of ouananiche and brook charr in a newly developed habitat compensation facility. Hydrobiologia. 582: 133-142.
  43. Enders, E.C., K.D. Clarke, C.J. Pennell, L.M.N. Ollerhead & D.A. Scruton (2007) Comparison between PIT and radio telemetry to evaluate winter habitat use and activity patterns of juvenile Atlantic salmon and brown trout. Hydrobiologia. 582: 231-242.
  44. Enders, E.C., D. Boisclair, P. Boily & P. Magnan (2006) A model of the standard metabolic rate of juvenile yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill) in relation to body mass and water temperature. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 76: 399-407.
  45. Enders, E.C. & D.A. Scruton (2006) Potential application of bioenergetics models to habitat modeling and importance of appropriate metabolic rate estimates with special consideration for Atlantic salmon. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2641: v + 40 pp.
  46. Enders, E.C. & D.A. Scruton (2005) Compilation of existing literature data on the standard and routine metabolic rate of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Data Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 1176: v + 43 pp.
  47. Enders, E.C., D. Boisclair & A.G. Roy (2005) A model of total swimming costs in turbulent flow for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 62: 1079-1089.
  48. Enders, E.C., T. Buffin-Bélanger, D. Boisclair & A.G. Roy (2005) The feeding behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon in relation to turbulent flow. Journal of Fish Biology. 66: 242-253.
  49. Enders, E.C., D. Boisclair & A.G. Roy (2004) Differences in the costs of habitat utilization between wild, farmed, and domesticated juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 61: 2302-2313.
  50. Enders, E.C., D. Boisclair & A.G. Roy (2003) The effect of turbulence on the cost of swimming for juveniles of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 60: 1149-1160.
  51. Enders, E.C. & J.-P. Herrmann (2003) Energetic costs of spontaneous activity in Horse mackerel quantified by a computerized imaging analysis. Archive of Fisheries and Marine Research. 50: 205-219.
  52. Herrmann, J.-P. & E.C. Enders (2000) Effect of body size on the standard metabolism of Horse mackerel. Journal of Fish Biology. 57: 746-760.