Eddy Carmack

Research Scientist

Current research and/or projects

My research interests are in the role of continental shelf areas in water mass formation and modification, the mechanisms by which coastal runoff influences regional ocean circulation and climate (especially in the North Pacific and Canadian Arctic), and the formation and behaviour of subsurface water masses in the open ocean and on the continental shelves. I was one of the principal investigators in INPOC a joint Canada/US/Russia project in the N. Pacific.

Key publications

Primary Publications:

  1. Carmack, E., D.G. Barber, J.R. Christensen, R.W. Macdonald, B. Rudels and E. Sakshaug. 2005. Climate variability and physical forcing of the food webs and the carbon budget on panarctic shelves. Progress in Oceanography. 71: 145-181.
  2. Carmack, E. and P.Wassmann. 2006. Food webs and physical-biological coupling on pan-Arctic shelves: Unifying concepts and comprehensive perspectives. Progress in Oceanography. 71: 446-477. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2006.10.004.
  3. Grebmeier, J.M., J. Overland, S.E. Moore, E.V. Farley, Jr., E. Carmack, L.W. Cooper, K. Frey, J.H. Helle, F.A. McLaughlin and S.L. McNutt. 2006. A major ecosystem shift in the Northern Bering Sea. Science. 311:1461-1464. doi: 10.1126/science.1121365.
  4. Shimada, K., T. Kamoshida, M. Itoh, S. Nishino, E. Carmack, F. McLaughlin, S. Zimmermann and A.Proshutinsky. 2006. Pacific ocean inflow: influence on catastrophic reduction of sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters. 33(L08605). doi: 10.1029/2005GL025624.
  5. Williams, W.J., E.C. Carmack, K. Shimada, H. Melling, K. Aagaard, R.W. Macdonald and R.G.Ingram. 2006. Joint effects of wind and ice motion in forcing upwelling in Mackenzie Trough, Beaufort Sea. Continental Shelf Research. 26:2352-2366. doi: 10.1016/jcsr.2006.06.012.
  6. Yamamot-Kawai, M., E. Carmack and F. McLaughlin. 2006. Brief communications: Nitrogen balance and Arctic throughflow. Nature. 443. doi: 0.1038/443043a.
  7. Bâcle, J., E. Carmack and R.G. Ingram. 2005. Water column structure and circulation under the North Water during spring transition: April-July 1998. Deep-Sea Research II. 49:4907-4925.
  8. Cherniawsky, J.Y., W.R. Crawford, O. Nikitin and E. Carmack. 2005. Bering Strait transports from satellite altimetry. Journal of Marine Research. 63(5): 887-900
  9. Dumas, J., E. Carmack and H. Melling. 2005. Climate change impacts on the Beaufort Shelf landfast ice. Cold Reg.Sci.Tech. 42:41-51.
  10. Overpeck, J.T., M. Sturm, J.A. Francis, D.K. Perovich, M.C. Serreze, R. Benner, E. Carmack, F.S. Chapin III, S.C. Gerlach, L.C. Hamilton, L.D. Hinzman, M. Holland, H.P. Huntington, J.R. Key, A.H. Lloyd, G.M. MacDonald, J. McFadden, D. Noone, T.D. Prowse, P. Schlosser and C.Vorosmarty. 2005. Arctic system on trajectory to new state. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. 86(34):309-316.
  11. Shimada, K., M. Itoh, S. Nishino, F. McLaughlin, E. Carmack, and A. Proshutinsky. 2005. Halocline structure in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters. 32:1-5.
  12. Carmack, E., R.W. Macdonald and S. Jasper. 2004. Phytoplankton productivity on the Canadian Shelf of the Beaufort Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 277:37-50.
  13. Kulikov, E.A., A.B. Rabinovich and E. Carmack. 2004. Barotropic and baroclinic tidal currents on the Mackenzie shelf break in the southeastern Beaufort Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research. 109.
  14. McLaughlin, F.A., E.C. Carmack, R.W. Macdonald, H. Melling, J.H. Swift, P.A. Wheeler, B.F. and E.B. Sherr. 2004. The joint roles of Pacific and Atlantic-origin waters in the Canada Basin, 1997-1998. Deep Sea Research I. 51:107-128.
  15. McLaughlin, F., E. Carmack, R.W. Macdonald, H. Melling, J.H. Swift, P.A.Wheeler, B.F. Sherr and E.B. Sherr. 2004b. The juxtaposition of Atlantic and Pacific-origin waters in the Canada Basin, 19971998: a basin in transition. Deep-Sea Research I. 51:107-128.
  16. Shimada, K., F. McLaughlin, E. Carmack, A. Proshutinsky, S. Nishino and M.Itoh. 2004. Penetration of the 1990's warm temperature anomaly of Atlantic water in the Canada Basin. Geophysical Research Letters. 31(20):1-4.
  17. Carmack, E.C. and D. C. Chapman. 2003. Wind-driven shelf/basin exchange on an Arctic shelf: The joint roles of ice cover extent and shelf-break bathymetry. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(14):1778 doi:10.1029/2003GL017526.
  18. Lobb, J., A.J. Weaver, and E. Carmack. 2003. Structure and mixing across an Arctic/Atlantic front in northern Baffin Bay. Geophysical Research Letters. 30(16):1833. doi:10.1029/2003GL017755.
  19. Polyakov, I. , D. Walsh, I. Dmitrenko, R. Colony, J. Hutchings, L. Timokhov, M. Johnson and E. Carmack. 2003. A long term circulation and water mass monitoring program for the Arctic Ocean. EOS. 84(30):284-285.
  20. Timmermans, M.-L., C. Garrett and Eddy Carmack. 2003.The thermohaline structure and evolution of the deep waters in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 50(10):1305-1321.
  21. Walsh, D. and E.C. Carmack. 2003. The nested thermohaline structure of Arctic intrusions. Ocean Modelling. 5:267-289.
  22. Bacle, J., E.C. Carmack and R.G. Ingram. 2002. Water column structure and circulation of waters under the North Water during spring transition:April-July 1998. Deep-Sea Research I. 49:3364-3375.
  23. Carmack. E. C. and R. W. Macdonald. 2002. Oceanography of the Canadian Shelf of the Beaufort Sea: A setting for Marine Life. Arctic. 56(1):29-45.
  24. Lovejoy, C., E. Carmack, L. Legendre and N.M. Price. 2002. Water column interleaving: A new physical mechanism determining protist communities and bacterial states. Limnological Oceanography. 47(6):1819-1831.
  25. Macdonald, R.W., F.A. McLaughlin and E.C. Carmack. 2002. Freshwater and its sources during the SHEBA drift. Deep Sea Research I. 49:1769-1785.
  26. McLaughlin, F.A., E.C. Carmack, R.W. Macdonald and A. Weaver. 2002. The Canada Basin 1989-1995: Upstream events and far-field effects of the Barents Sea Branch. J. Geophysical Research. 107(C7):10.1029/2001JC000904.
  27. Rogachev, K.A. and E.C. Carmack. 2002. Evidence of trapping and amplification of near-inertial motions in a large Anticyclonic Ring in the Oyashio. J. Oceanography. 58:673-682.
  28. Tremblay, J-E, C. Payne, N.M. Price, Y. Gratton and E.C. Carmack. 2002. Impact of large-scale Arctic circulation and North Water Polyna on nutrient inventories in Baffin Bay. J. Geophy. Res. 107(10):1029/2000JC000595.
  29. Walsh, D. and E. C. Carmack. 2002. A note on evanescent behaviour of Arctic thermohaline intrusions. Journal of Marine Research. 60:281-310.
  30. Carmack, E. and F. McLaughlin. 2001. Arctic Ocean change and consequences to biodiversity: A perspective on linkage and scale. Mem. Natl. Polar. Res., Spec Issue. 54:365-375.
  31. Rogachev, K.A., E.C. Carmack, A.S. Salomatin and M.G. Alexenina. 2001. Lunar fortnightly modulation of tidal mixing near Kashevarov bank, Sea of Okhotsk, and its impact on biota and sea ice. Progress in Oceanography. 49(1-4):373-390.
  32. Shimada, K., E.C. Carmack, K. Hatakeyama and T. Takizawa. 2001. Varieties of shallow temperature maximum waters in the western Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29:3441-3444.
  33. Carmack, E.C. 2000. The Arctic Ocean's freshwater budget: Sources, storage and export. pp. 91-126. In: E.L. Lewis et al. (eds.). The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean, Kluwer, The Netherlands.
  34. Macdonald, R., E. Carmack, F.A. McLaughlin, K.K. Falkner and J.H. Swift. 1999. Connections among ice, runoff and atmospheric forcing in the Beaufort Gyre. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26:2223-2226.
  35. Macdonald, R., E. Carmack and D. Paton. 1999. Using the d18O composition in landfast ice as a record of arctic estuarine processes. Mar. Chem. 65(1-2):3-24.
  36. Carmack, E., K. Aagaard, J. Swift, R. Perkin, F. McLaughlin, R. Macdonald and P. Jones. 1998. Thermohaline transitions. pp. 179-186. In: J. Imberger (ed.). Physical Processes in Lakes and Oceans, Coastal Estuarine Studies. 54.
  37. Carmack, E. and Y. Kulikov. 1998. Wind-forced upwelling. and internal Kelvin wave generation in Mackenzie Canyon, Beaufort Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 103:18, 447-18, 458.
  38. Kulikov, Y., E. Carmack and R. Macdonald. 1998. Flow variability at the continental shelf break of the Mackenzie Shelf in the Beaufort Sea. J. Geophys. Res. 103:12,725-12,741.
  39. Rogachev, K., E. Carmack and A. Salomatin. 1998. Recent changes in the structure of the Oyashio and its fresh core rings. J. Mar. Sci.
  40. Carmack, E. 1997. High-latitude oceans and global climate. In: D. Martinson (ed.), Workshop on Polar Processes in Global Climate, Am. Meteor. Society: 81-86.
  41. Carmack, E., K. Aagaard, J. Swift, R. Perkin, F. McLaughlin, R. Macdonald, P. Jones, J. Smith, K. Ellis and L. Kilius. 1997. Changes in temperature and tracer distributions within the Arctic Ocean: Results from the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section. Deep-Sea Res. II. 44:1487-1502.
  42. Munchow, A. and E. Carmack. 1997. Synoptic flow and density observations near an arctic shelf break. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27:1402-1419.
  43. Rogachev, R.A., A.S. Bychkov, E.C. Carmack, P. Ya. Tischenko, A.P. Nedashkovsky and C.S. Wong. 1997. Regional carbon dioxide distribution near Kashevarov Bank (Sea of Okhotsk): Effect of tidal mixing. pp. 52-69. In: S. Tsunogai (ed.), Biogeochemical Processes In the North Pacific., Proc. of the International Marine Science Symposium, held on 12-14 Nov. 1996 at Mutsu, Aomori, Japan. Japan Marine Science Foundation, Tokyo.
  44. Swift, J., E. Jones, K. Aagaard, E. Carmack, M. Hingston, R. Macdonald, F. McLaughlin and R. Perkin. 1997. Waters of the Makarov and Canada Basins. Deep-Sea Res. 44:1503-1530.
  45. Carmack, E.C., Flato, G.M., P. Marsh, H. Melling and R.E. Stewart. 1996. Arctic Climate Systems System Study: The Canadian Science Plan, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, B.C.
  46. McLaughlin, F., E. Carmack, R. Macdonald and J. Bishop. 1996. Physical and geochemical properties across the Atlantic/Pacific water mass boundary in the southern Canadian Basin. J. Geophys. Res. 101:1193-1198.
  47. Killworth, P., E. Carmack, R. Weiss and R. Matear. 1996. Modeling deep water renewal in Lake Baikal. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41:1521-1538.
  48. Rogachev, K., A. Salomatin and E. Carmack. 1996. Concentration of pelagic organisms at mesoscale fronts in the western subarctic Pacific: Small fish on long waves. Fisheries Res. 5:153-162.
  49. Rogachev, K.A., P.Ya. Tishchenko, G.Yu. Pavola, A.S. Bychkov, E.C. Carmack, C.S. Wong and G.I. Yurasov. 1996. The influence of fresh-core rings on chemical concentrations (CO2, PO4, O2, alkalinity, and pH) in the Western Subarctic Pacific. J. Geophys. Res. 101:999-1009.
  50. Stevens, C., G. Lawrence, P. Hamblin and E. Carmack. 1996. Wind forcing of Internal Waves in Long Narrow Stratified Lakes. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans. 24:41-50.
  51. Carmack, E., R. Macdonald, R. Perkin, F. McLaughlin and R. Pearson. 1995. Evidence for Warming of Atlantic Water in the Southern Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean: Evidence from the Larsen-93 Expedition. Geophys. Res. Lett. 22:1061-1065.
  52. Jones, E., K. Aagaard, E. Carmack, R. Macdonald, F. McLaughlin, R. Perkin and J. Swift. 1995. Recent changes in Arctic Ocean thermohaline structure. Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research. 51:307-315.
  53. Macdonald, R., D. Paton, E. Carmack and A. Omstedt. 1995. The freshwater budget and under-ice spreading of Mackenzie River water in the Canadian Beaufort Sea based on salinity and 18O/16O measurements in water and ice. J. Geophys. Res. 100:895-919.
  54. Aagaard, K. and E. Carmack. 1994. The Arctic Ocean and climate: A perspective. In: J. Johannessen et al. (eds.), The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment, Geophysical Monograph. 85:4-20. American Geophysical Union.
  55. Carmack, C. and E. Carmack. 1994. Children and change: The challenge of parent education in the Russian Federation. Individual Psychology. 50:321-328.
  56. Falkner, K., R. Macdonald, E. Carmack and T. Weingartner. 1994. The potential of barium as a tracer of arctic water masses. In: J. Johannessen et al. (eds.), The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment, Geophysical Monograph 85. American Geophysical Union. 63-76.
  57. Macdonald, R. and E. Carmack. 1994. Sediment Records of Man's activities in the Kootenay Lake drainage basin. Water Poll. Res. J. Canada. 29:103-116.
  58. Omstedt, A., E. Carmack and R. Macdonald. 1994. Modelling the seasonal cycle of salinity in the Mackenzie shelf/estuary. J. Geophys. Res. 99:10,011-10,021.
  59. Macdonald, R., E. Carmack, and D. Wallace. 1993. Tritium and Radiocarbon dating of Canada Basin Deep Waters. Science. 259:103-104.
  60. Forbes, J., R. Macdonald, E. Carmack, K. Iseki and M. O'Brien. 1992. Zooplankton retained by sequential sediment traps along an Arctic shelf break during winter. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 49:663-670.
  61. Carmack, E. and J. Swift. 1991. Some aspects of the large-scale oceanography of the Arctic Ocean influencing biological processes. In: J. Priddle and L. Medlin [eds.] Polar Diatoms. Occasional Publications Series, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge. 35-46.
  62. Weiss, R., E. Carmack, and V. Koropolov. 1991. Deep water renewal and biological production in Lake Baikal. Nature. 349:665-669.
  63. Macdonald, R. and E. Carmack. 1991. Role of large-scale under ice topography in separating estuary and ocean on an Arctic shelf. Atmosphere-Ocean. 29:37-53.
  64. Carmack, E. and R. Weiss. 1991. Convection in Lake Baikal: an example of the thermobaric instability. In P.-C. Chu and J.-C. Gascard [eds.] Deep Convection and Deep Water Formation in the Ocean. Elsevier, pp. 215-228.
  65. Macdonald, R. and E. Carmack. 1991. Age of Canada Basin deep waters - a way to estimate primary productivity for the Arctic Ocean. Science. 29:1348-1350.
  66. Carmack, E. 1990. Large-scale oceanography of polar oceans. In: W. O. Smith [ed.] Polar Oceans. Academic, pp. 171-222.
  67. Hamblin, P.and E. Carmack. 1990. On the rate of heat transfer between a lake and an ice sheet. Cold Regions Science and Technology. 18:173-182.

Secondary Publications:

  1. SCOR Working Group 58. 1979. The Arctic Ocean Heat Budget. University of Bergan Geophysical Institute. Report No.52, 98 pp.
  2. ACSYS Scientific Steering Group. 1994. Arctic Climate Systems Study (ACSYS): Initial Implementation Plan. WCRP-85; WMO/TD 627, 66 pp.
  3. Carmack, E. et al., 1996. Arctic Climate Systems Study (ACSYS): Canadian National Science Plan. For: World Climate Research Program and Canadian Climate research Committee, 59 pp.
  4. Carmack, E. and M. Bergmann. 1997. Science Plan for Arctic 97/98: SHEBA/JOIS, Oceanographic Research by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans in Support of the Joint Canada/U.S. SHEBA/JOIS Program. For: Department of Fisheries and Oceans.