Dr. William Merryfield

Research Scientist

Application of climate models to seasonal to decadal prediction

Current research and/or projects

Research, development and analysis in connection with Environment Canada's seasonal forecasting and global climate modelling activities

  • Prediction of future climate on time scales from a month to a decade
  • Development of improved models and methodologies for climate forecasting
  • Development of climate forecasting products and applications
  • Analysis of climate simulations
  • Ocean influences on climate

Professional activities / interests

Co-chair, World Climate Research Programme Working Group on Subseasonal to Interdecadal Prediction

Scientific Advisory Board, APPLICATE

Associate Editor, Atmosphere-Ocean

Education and awards

B.Sc. Physics, Stanford University, USA

Ph.D. Astrophysical, Planetary & Atmospheric Sciences, University of Colorado, USA

Environment Canada Citation of Excellence for Teamwork, Partnering and Collaboration, 2013 & 2017

Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal, 2013

Key publications

  • Meehl, G. A., J. H. Richter, H. Teng, A. Capotondi, K. Cobb, F. Doblas-Reyes, M. G. Donat, M. H. England, J. C. Fyfe, W. Han, H. Kim, B. P. Kirtman, Y. Kushnir, N. S. Lovenduski, M. E. Mann, W. J. Merryfield, V. Nieves, K. Pegion, S. Sanchez, A. Scaife, D. Smith, A. C. Subramanian, L. Sun, D. Thompson, C. Ummenhofer, S.-P. Xie, 2020: Initialized Earth system prediction from subseasonal to decadal timescales. Nature Reviews Earth and Environment, submitted.
  • Smith, D. M., A. A. Scaife, R. Eade, P. Athanasiadis, A. Bellucci, I. Bethke, R. Bilbao, L. F. Borchert, L.-P. Caron, F. Counillon, G. Danabasoglu, T. Delworth, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, N. J. Dunstone, V. Estella-Perez, S. Flavoni, L. Hermanson, N. Keenlyside, V. Kharin, M. Kimoto, W. J. Merryfield, J. Mignot, T. Mochizuki, K. Modali, P.-A. Monerie, W. A. Müller, D. Nicol, P. Ortega, K. Pankatz, H. Pohlmann, J. Robson, P. Ruggieri, R. Sospedra-Alfonso, D. Swingedouw, Y. Wang, S. Wild, S. Yeager, X. Yang and L. Zhang, 2020: North Atlantic climate far more predictable than models imply. Nature, 583, 796-800, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2525-0.
  • Lin, H., W. J. Merryfield, R. Muncaster, G. C. Smith, M. Markovic, F. Dupont, F. Roy, J.-F. Lemieux, A. Dirkson, S. Kharin, W.-S. Lee, M. Charron, A. Erfani, 2020: The Canadian Seasonal to Interannual Prediction System Version 2 (CanSIPSv2). Weather and Forecasting, 35, 1317-1343, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-19-0259.1.
  • Ma, H.-Y., A. C. Siongco, S. A. Klein, S. Xie, A. R. Karspeck, K. Raeder, J. L. Anderson, J. Lee, B. P. Kirtman, W. J. Merryfield, H. Murakami and J. J. Tribbia, 2020: On the correspondence between seasonal forecast biases and long-term climate biases in sea surface temperature. Journal of Climate, submitted.
  • Merryfield, W. J. , and Coauthors, 2020: Current and emerging developments in subseasonal to decadal prediction. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 101, E869-896, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0037.1.
  • Kumar, A., J.-P. Ceron, C. Coelho, L. Ferranti, R. Graham, D. Jones, W. Merryfield, A. Munoz, S. Pai, and E. Rodriguez, 2020: Guidance on Operational Practices for Objective Seasonal Forecasting (WMO-No. 1246). World Meteorological Organization, Geneva.
  • Dirkson, A., B. Denis and W. J. Merryfield, 2019: A multi-model approach for improving seasonal probabilistic forecasts of regional Arctic sea ice. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 10,844-10,853, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083831
  • Smith, D. M., R. Eade, L.-P. Caron, T. DelSole, T. Delworth, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, N. J. Dunstone, L. Hermanson, V. Kharin, M. Kimoto, W. J. Merryfield, T. Mochizuki, W. A. Muller, H. Pohlmann, S. Yeager and X. Yang, 2019: Robust skill of decadal climate predictions. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 2, 13, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-019-0071-y
  • Danabasoglu, G., F. Vitart and W. Merryfield, 2019: Subseasonal-to-Decadal Climate Predictions: Accomplishments and Challenges Eos, 100, doi:10.1029/2019EO114937.
  • Smith, D. M., A. A. Scaife, E. Hawkins, R. Bilbao, G. J. Boer, M. Caian, L.-P. Caron, G. Danabasoglu, T. Delworth, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, R. Doescher, N. J. Dunstone, R. Eade, L. Hermanson, M. Ishii, V. Kharin, M. Kimoto, T. Koenigk, Y. Kushnir, D. Matei, G.A. Meehl, M. Menegoz, W. J. Merryfield, T. Mochizuki, W. A. Muller, H. Pohlmann, S. Power, M. Rixen, M. Tuma, K. Wyser, X. Yang and S. Yeager, 2018: Predicted chance that global warming will temporarily exceed 1.5oC. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 11,895-11,903, doi: 10.1029/2018GL079362.
  • Dirkson, A., W. J. Merryfield and A. H. Monahan, 2019: Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasts of Arctic Sea Ice Concentration. Journal of Climate, 32, 1251-1271, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0224.1.
  • Boer, G. J., W. Merryfield and V. Kharin, 2018: Differences in Potential and Actual Skill in a Decadal Prediction Experiment. Climate Dynamics, 52, 6619-6631, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4533-4.
  • Boer, G. J., W. Merryfield and V. Kharin, 2018: Relationships between potential, attainable, and actual skill in a decadal prediction experiment. Climate Dynamics, 52, 4813-4831, doi:10.1007/s00382-018-4417-7.
  • Scaife, A. A., L. Ferranti, O. Alves, P. Athanasiadis, J. Baehr, M. Deque, T. Dippe, N. Dunstone, D. Fereday, R. G. Gudgel, R. J. Greatbatch, L. Hermanson, Y. Imada, S. Jain, A. Kumar, C. MacLachlan, W. Merryfield, W. A. Muller, H.-L. Ren, D. Smith, Y. Takaya, G. Vecchi and X. Yang, 2019: Tropical Rainfall Predictions from Multiple Seasonal Forecast Systems. International Journal of Climatology, 39, 974-988, doi:10.1002/joc.5855.
  • Sospedra-Alfonso, R., Mudryk, L. and W. J. Merryfield, 2017: A statistical model for estimating monthly snow water equivalent anomalies from temperature and precipitation predictors under changing climatic conditions. Water Resources Research, submitted
  • Zadra, A., K. Williams, A. Frassoni, M. Rixen, A. F. Adames, J. Berner, F. Bouyssel, B. Casati, H. Christensen, M. B. Ek, G. Flato, Y. Huang, F. Judt, H. Lin, E. Maloney, W. Merryfield, A. van Niekerk, T. Rackow, K. Saito, N. Wedi, and P. Yadav, 2017: Systematic Errors in Weather and Climate Models: Nature, Origins, and Way Forward. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99, ES67-ES70, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0287.1.
  • Sospedra-Alfonso, R. and W. J. Merryfield, 2018: Initialization and potential predictability of soil moisture in the Canadian Seasonal to Interannual Prediction System. Journal of Climate, 31, 5205-5224, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0707.1
  • Kushner, P. J., L. R. Mudryk, W. Merryfield, J. T. Ambadan, A. Berg, A. Bichet, R. Brown, C. Derksen, S. J. Dery, A. Dirkson, G. Flato, C. G. Fletcher, J. C. Fyfe, N. Gillett, C. Haas, S. Howell, F. Laliberte, K. McCusker, M. Sigmond, R. Sospreda-Alfonso, N. F. Tandon, C. Thackeray, B. Tremblay, and F. W. Zwiers, 2017: Assessment of Snow, Sea Ice, and Related Climate Processes in Canada's Earth-System Model and Climate Prediction System. The Cryosphere, 12, 1137-1156, doi:10.5194/tc-12-1137-2018.
  • Ma, H.-Y., S. A. Klein, S. Xie, C. Zhang, S. Tang, Q. Tang, C. J. Morcrette, K. Van Weverberg, J. Petch, M. Ahlgrimm, L. K. Berg, F. Cheruy, J. Cole, R. Forbes, W. I. Gustafson Jr., M. Huang, Y. Liu, W. Merryfield, Y. Qian, and Y.-C. Wang, 2018: CAUSES: On the role of surface energy budget errors to the warm surface air temperature error over the Central U.S. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 123, 2888-2909, doi:10.1002/2017JD027194.
  • Morcrette, C. J., K. Van Weverberg, H.-Y. Ma, M. Ahlgrimm, E. Bazile, L. K. Berg, A. Cheng, F. Cheruy, J. Cole, R. Forbes, W. I. Gustafson Jr, M. Huang, W.-S. Lee, Y. Liu, L. Mellul, W. Merryfield, Y. Qian, R. Roehrig, Y.-C. Wang, S. Xie, C. Zhang, S. Klein, J. Petch, 2017: CAUSES: Near-surface temperature errors in NWP and climate model 5-day hindcasts near the Southern Great Plains. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 123, 2655-2683, doi:10.1002/2017JD027199.
  • Van Weverberg, K., C. J. Morcrette, J. Petch, S. A. Klein, H.-Y. Ma, C. Zhang, S. Xie, Q. Tang, W. I. Gustafson Jr, Y. Qian, L. K. Berg, Y. Liu, M. Huang, M. Ahlgrimm, R. Forbes, E. Bazile, R. Roehrig, J. Cole, W. Merryfield, W.-S. Lee, F. Cheruy, L. Mellul, Y.-C. Wang, K. Johnson, M. Khaiyer, 2017: CAUSES: Attribution of surface radiation biases in NWP and climate models near the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 123, 3612-3644, doi:10.1002/2017JD027188.
  • Merryfield, W. J., F. J. Doblas-Reyes, L. Ferranti, J.-H. Jeong, Y. J. Orsolini, R. I. Saurral, A. A. Scaife, M. A. Tolstykh and M. Rixen, 2017: Advancing climate forecasting. Eos, 98, doi:10.1029/2017EO086891.
  • Ambadan, J. T., A. A. Berg, W. J. Merryfield and W.-S. Lee, 2017: Influence of snowmelt on soil moisture and on near surface air temperature during the winter-spring transition season. Climate Dynamics, 51, 1295, doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3955-8.
  • Tompkins, A. M., M. I. Ortiz de Zárate, R. I. Saurral, C. Vera, C. Saulo, W. J. Merryfield, M. Sigmond, W.-S. Lee, J. Baehr, A. Braun, A. Butler, M. Déqué, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, M. Gordon, A. A. Scaife, Y. Imada, M. Ishii, T. Ose, B. Kirtman, A. Kumar, W. A. Müller, A. Pirani, T. Stockdale, M. Rixen and T. Yasuda, 2017: The Climate-system Historical Forecast Project: providing open access to seasonal forecast ensembles from centers around the globe. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98, 2293-2301, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0209.1.
  • Yu, B., H. Lin, Z. Wu, and W. J. Merryfield, 2018: Asian-Bering-North American teleconnection: Seasonality, maintenance, and climate impact on North America. Climate Dynamics, 50, 2023, doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3734-6.
  • Kharin, V. V., W. J. Merryfield, G. J. Boer, W.-S. Lee, 2017: A postprocessing method for seasonal forecasts using temporally and spatially smoothed statistics. Monthly Weather Review, 145, 3545-3561, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-16-0337.1.
  • Sospedra-Alfonso, R. and W. J. Merryfield, 2017: Influence of temperature and precipitation on historical and future snowpack variability in the Second-Generation Canadian Earth System Model. Journal of Climate, 30, 4633-4656, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0612.1
  • Dirkson, A., W. J. Merryfield and A. H. Monahan, 2017: Impacts of sea ice thickness initialization on seasonal Arctic sea ice predictions. Journal of Climate, 30, 1001-1017, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0437.1.
  • Sigmond, M., M. C. Reader, G. M. Flato, W. J. Merryfield and A. Tivy, 2016: Skillful seasonal forecasts of Arctic sea ice retreat and advance dates in a dynamical forecasting system. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 12,457-12,465, doi:10.1002/2016GL071396.
  • Yu, B., H. Lin, W. Wu, and W. J. Merryfield, 2016: Relationship between North American winter temperature and large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and its decadal variation. Environmental Research Letters, 11, 74001, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/7/074001 .
  • Sospedra-Alfonso, R., W. J. Merryfield and V. V. Kharin, 2016: Representation of snow in the Canadian Seasonal to Interannual Prediction System: Part II. Potential predictability and hindcast skill. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17, 2511-2535, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-16-0027.1
  • Peterson, K. A., D. Notz, S. Tietsche, M. Chevallier, W. J. Merryfield, W.-S. Lee, V. Guemas, A. A. Scaife, 2016: The effects of sea ice initialization on multimodel seasonal forecasts. Climate Dynamics, submitted.
  • Butler, A. H., O. Alves, A. Arribas, M. Athanassiadou, J. Baehr, N. Calvo, A. Charlton-Perez, M. Deque, D. I. V. Domeisen, H. Hendon, Y. Imada, M. Ishii, M. Iza, A. Karpechko, A. Kumar, C. MacLachlan, W. J. Merryfield, W. A. Müller, Alan O'Neill, A. A. Scaife, J. Scinocca, M. Sigmond, T. N. Stockdale, and Tamaki Yasuda, 2016: The Climate-system Historical Forecast Project: Do stratosphere-resolving models make better seasonal climate predictions in boreal winter? Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 142, 1413-1427 doi:10.1002/qj.2743.
  • Sospedra-Alfonso, R., L. Mudryk, W. J. Merryfield and C. Derksen, 2016: Representation of snow in the Canadian Seasonal to Interannual Prediction System: Part I. Initialization. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17, 1467-1488, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-14-0223.1.
  • Dirkson, A., W. J. Merryfield and A. H. Monahan, 2015: Real time estimation of Arctic sea ice thickness through maximum covariance analysis. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 4868-4877, doi:10.1002/2015GL063930.
  • Sospedra-Alfonso, R., J. R. Melton, and W. J. Merryfield, 2015: Effects of temperature and precipitation on snowpack variability in the central Rocky Mountains as a function of altitude. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 4429-4438, doi: 10.1002/2015GL063898.
  • Ambadan, J. T., A. A. Berg and W. J. Merryfield, 2015: Influence of snow and soil moisture initialization on sub-seasonal predictability and forecast skill in boreal spring. Climate Dynamics, 47, 49-65, doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2821-9.
  • Klingaman, N. P., S. J. Woolnough, X. Jiang, D. Waliser, P. K. Xavier, J. Petch, M. Caian, C. Hannay, D. Kim, H.-Y. Ma, W. J. Merryfield, T. Miyakawa, M. Pritchard, J. A. Ridout, R. Roehrig, E. Shindo, F. Vitart, H. Wang, N. R. Cavanaugh, B. E. Mapes, A. Shelly, and G. J. Zhang, 2015: Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation: Linking hindcast fidelity to simulated diabatic heating and moistening, 2015: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 120, 4690-4717, doi:10.1002/2014JD022374.
  • Salimun, E., F. Tangang, L. Juneng, F. W. Zwiers and W. J. Merryfield, 2016: Skill evaluation of CanCM4 for seasonal climate forecast over Malaysia during the early and late winter monsoon periods, International Journal of Climatology, 36, 439-454, doi: 10.1002/joc.4361.
  • Fajber, R., A. H. Monahan and W. J. Merryfield, 2014: At what time of day do daily extreme near surface wind speeds occur?, Journal of Climate, 27, 4226-4244, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00286.1
  • Kirtman, B., D. Min, J. M. Infanti, J. L. Kinter III, D. A. Paolino, Q. Zhang, H. van den Dool, S. Saha, M. Pena Mendez, E. Becker, P. Peng, P. Tripp, J. Huang, D. G. DeWitt, M. K. Tippett, A. G. Barnston, S. Li, S. D. Schubert, M. Rienecker, M. Suarez, Z. E. Li, J. Marshak, Y.-K. Lim, J. Tribbia, K. Pegion, W. J. Merryfield, B. Denis and E. F. Wood, 2014: The North American Multimodel Ensemble: Phase-1 seasonal-to-interannual prediction; Phase-2 toward developing intraseasonal prediction., Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95, 585-601, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00050.1.
  • Merryfield, W. J., W.-S. Lee, W. Wang, M. Chen, and A. Kumar, 2013: Multi-system seasonal predictions of Arctic sea ice, Geophysical Research Letters, 40,1551-1556, doi:10.1002/grl.50317.
  • Sigmond, M., J.C. Fyfe, G.M. Flato, V.V. Kharin and W. J. Merryfield, 2013: Seasonal forecast skill of Arctic sea ice area in a dynamical forecast system, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 529-534, doi:10.1002/grl.50129.
  • Boer, G. J., V. V. Kharin and W. J. Merryfield, 2013: Decadal predictability and forecast skill. Climate Dynamics, 41, 1817-1833, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1705-0.
  • Merryfield, W. J., W.-S. Lee, G. J. Boer, V. V. Kharin, J. F. Scinocca, G. M. Flato, R. S. Ajayamohan, J. C. Fyfe, Y. Tang, and S. Polavarapu, 2013: The Canadian Seasonal to Interannual Prediction System. Part I: Models and Initialization, Monthly Weather Review, 141 , 2910-2945, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00216.1.
  • Smith, D. M., A. A. Scaife, G. J. Boer, M. Caian, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, V. Guemas, E. Hawkins, W. Hazeleger, L. Hermanson, C. K. Ho, M. Ishii, V. Kharin, M. Kimoto, B. Kirtman, J. Lean, D. Matei, W. J. Merryfield, W. A. Müller, H. Pohlmann, A. Rosati, B. Wouters and K. Wyser, 2012: Real-time multi-model decadal climate predictions. Climate Dynamics , 41, 2875-2888, 10.1007/s00382-012-1600-0.
  • Kharin, V. V., G. J. Boer, W. J. Merryfield, J. F. Scinocca, and W.-S. Lee, 2012: Statistical adjustment of decadal predictions in a changing climate. Geophysical Research Letters , 39 , L19705, doi:10.1029/2012GL052647.
  • Goddard, L., A. Kumar, A. Solomon, D. Smith, G. Boer, P. Gonzalez, C. Deser, S. Mason, B. Kirtman, R. Msadek, R. Sutton, E. Hawkins, T. Fricker, V. Kharin, W. Merryfield, G. Hegerl, C. Ferro, D. Stephenson, G.A. Meehl, T. Stockdale, R. Burgman, A. Greene, Y. Kushnir, M. Newman, J. Carton, I. Fukumori, D. Vimont and T. Delworth, 2012: A verification framework for interannual-to-decadal predictions experiments. Climate Dynamics, 40, 245-272, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1481-2.
  • Drewitt, G., A. A. Berg, W. J. Merryfield and W.-S. Lee, 2012: Effect of realistic soil moisture initialization on the Canadian CanCM3 seasonal forecast model. Atmosphere-Ocean, 50, 466-474. doi:10.1080/07055900.2012.722910.
  • Fyfe, J. C., W. J. Merryfield, V. Kharin, G.J. Boer, W.-S. Lee and K. von Salzen, 2011: Skillful predictions of decadal trends in global mean surface temperature. Geophysical Research Letters , 38, L22801, doi:10.1029/2011GL049508.
  • Saenko, O. A., X. Zhai, W. Merryfield and W. Lee, 2012: The combined effect of tidally and eddy driven diapycnal mixing on the large-scale ocean circulation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 42, 526-538. doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-11-0122.1.
  • Finnis, J., W. W. Hsieh, H. Lin and W. J. Merryfield, 2012: Nonlinear post-processing of numerical seasonal climate forecasts. Atmosphere-Ocean, 50, 207-218. doi:10.1080/07055900.2012.667388.
  • Foreman, M. G. G., B. Pal and W. J. Merryfield, 2011: Trends in upwelling and downwelling winds along the British Columbia shelf. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, C10023. doi:10.1029/2011JC006995.
  • Alavi, N., G. Drewitt, A. A. Berg, and W. J. Merryfield, 2011: Soil moisture initialization effects in the CCCma AGCM3: Relationship of seasonal climate forecast error to uncertainty in soil moisture initializations. Atmosphere-Ocean, 49, 179-188, doi: 10.1080/07055900.2011.608422.
  • Lienert, F., J. C. Fyfe and W. J. Merryfield, 2011: Do climate models capture the tropical influences on North Pacific sea surface temperature variability? Journal of Climate, 24, 6203-6209, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00205.1 .
  • Koster, R. D., S. P. P. Mahanama,, T. J. Yamada, G. Balsamo, A. A. Berg, M. Boisserie, P. A. Dirmeyer, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, G. Drewitt, C. T. Gordon, Z. Guo, J.-H. Jeong, W.-S. Lee, Z. Li,, L. Luo, S. Malyshev, W. J. Merryfield, S. I. Seneviratne, T. Stanelle, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, F. Vitart, and E. F. Wood, 2011: The second phase of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment: Soil moisture contributions to subseasonal forecast skill. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 12, 805-822. doi: 10.1175/2011JHM1365.1
  • Arora, V., J. Scinocca, G. Boer, J. Christian, K. L. Denman, G. Flato, V. Kharin, W. Lee, W. J. Merryfield, 2011: Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases. Geophysical Research Letters , 38, L05805, doi:10.1029/2010GL046270.
  • Denissenkov, P. A., and W. J. Merryfield, 2011: Thermohaline mixing: Does it really govern the atmospheric chemical composition of low-mass red giants? Astrophysical Journal Letters, 727, L8.
  • Gillett, N. P., V. Arora, K. Zickfeld, S. Marshall, and W. J. Merryfield, 2011: Ongoing climate change following a complete cessation of carbon dioxide emissions. Nature Geoscience, 4, 83-87, doi:10.1038/NGEO1047.
  • Merryfield, W. J., W.-S. Lee, G. J. Boer, V. V. Kharin, B. Pal, J. F. Scinocca and G. M. Flato, 2010: The first Coupled Historical Forecasting Project (CHFP1). Atmosphere-Ocean, 48, 263-283.
  • Bakalian, F., H. Ritchie, K. Thompson and W. Merryfield, 2010: Exploring atmosphere-ocean coupling using principal component and redundancy analysis. Journal of Climate, 23, 4926-4943.
  • Christian, J. R., V. K. Arora, G. J. Boer, C. Curry, K. Zahariev, K. Denman, G. Flato, W. Lee, W. Merryfield, N. Roulet, and J. Scinocca, 2010: The global carbon cycle in the CCCma earth system model CanESM1: preindustrial control simulation. Journal of Geophysical Research (Biogeosciences), 115, G03014, doi:10.1029/2008JG000920.
  • Scott, R. B., B. K. Arbic, E. P. Chassignet, A. C. Coward, M. Maltrud, W. J. Merryfield, A. Srinivasan, A. Varghese, 2010: Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records. Ocean Modelling, 32, 157-169, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.01.005.
  • Ajayamohan, R. S., W. J. Merryfield, and V. V. Kharin, 2010: Increasing trend of synoptic activity and its relationship with extreme rain events over central India. Journal of Climate, 23, 1004-1013.
  • Koster, R. D., S. P. P. Mahanama,, T. J. Yamada, G. Balsamo, A. A. Berg, M. Boisserie, P. A. Dirmeyer, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, G. Drewitt, C. T. Gordon, Z. Guo, J.-H. Jeong, D. M. Lawrence, W.-S. Lee, Z. Li, L. Luo, S. Malyshev, W. J. Merryfield, S. I. Seneviratne, T. Stanelle, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, F. Vitart and E. F. Wood, 2010: Contribution of land surface initialization to subseasonal forecast skill: First results from a multi-model experiment. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L02402. doi:10.1029/2009GL041677.
  • Arora, V. K., G. J. Boer, J. R. Christian, C. L. Curry, K. L. Denman, K. Zahariev, G. M. Flato, J. F. Scinocca, W. J. Merryfield and W. G. Lee 2009: The effect of terrestrial photosynthesis down-regulation on the 20th century carbon budget simulated with the CCCma Earth System Model. Journal of Climate, 22, 6066-6088.
  • Yu, B., G. J. Boer, F. W. Zwiers and W. J. Merryfield, 2009: Covariability of SST and surface heat fluxes in reanalyses and CMIP3 climate models. Climate Dynamics, 22, 589-605, doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0669-6.
  • Merryfield, W. J., B. Pal and M. G. G. Foreman, 2009: Projected future changes in surface marine winds off the west coast of Canada. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, C06008, doi:10.1029/2008JC005123.
  • Merryfield, W. J., M. M. Holland and A. H. Monahan, 2008: Multiple equilibria and abrupt transitions in Arctic summer sea ice extent. AGU Monograph "Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications" , Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 180, edited by E. T. DeWeaver, C. M. Bitz, and L.-B. Tremblay, pp. 151-174, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • Merryfield, W. J. and R. B. Scott, 2007: Bathymetric influence on mean currents in two high-resolution near-global ocean models. Ocean Modelling, 16, 76-94, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2006.07.005.
  • Saenko, O. A. and W. J. Merryfield, 2006: Vertical partition of ocean heat transport in isothermal coordinates. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L01606, doi:10.1029/2005GL024902.
  • Merryfield, W. J., 2006: Changes to ENSO under CO2 doubling in a multi-model ensemble. Journal of Climate, 19, 4009-4027.
  • Morell, J. M., J. C. Corredor, and W. J. Merryfield, 2006: Thermohaline staircases in a Caribbean eddy and mechanisms for staircase formation. Deep-Sea Research II, Proceedings of the IAPSO/SCOR Conference on Ocean Mixing, 53, 128-139.
  • Merryfield, W. J., 2005: Ocean mixing in 10 steps. Science , 308 , 641-642.
  • Merryfield, W. J., 2005: Dependence of differential mixing on N and R-rho. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 35, 991-1003.
  • Saenko, O. A., and W. J. Merryfield, 2005: On the effect of topographically enhanced mixing on the global ocean circulation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 35, 826-834.
  • Merryfield, W. J., and G. J. Boer, 2005: Variability of upper Pacific Ocean overturning in a coupled climate model. Journal of Climate, 18, 666-683.
  • Gargett, A. E., W. J. Merryfield, and G. Holloway, 2003: Direct numerical simulation of differential scalar diffusion in three-dimensional stratified turbulence. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 33, 1758-1782.
  • Merryfield, W. J., and G. Holloway, 2003: Application of an accurate advection algorithm to sea-ice modelling. Ocean Modelling, 5, 1-15.
  • Merryfield, W. J., 2002: Intrusions in double-diffusively stable Arctic waters: Evidence for differential mixing? Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32, 1452-1459.
  • Merryfield, W. J., and G. Holloway, 2002: Predictability of quasi-geostrophic turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 465, 191-212.
  • Merryfield, W. J., Cummins, P. F. and G. Holloway, 2001: Equilibrium statistical mechanics of barotropic flow over finite topography, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31, 1880-1890.
  • Merryfield, W. J., 2000: Origin of thermohaline staircases. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 30, 1046-1068.
  • Merryfield, W. J., G. Holloway, and A. E. Gargett, 1999: A global ocean model with double-diffusive mixing, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29, 1124-1142.
  • Merryfield, W. J., and G. Holloway, 1999: Eddy fluxes and topography in stratified quasi-geostrophic models, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 380, 59-80.
  • Merryfield, W. J., G. Holloway, and A. E. Gargett, 1998: Differential transport of heat and salt by weak stratified turbulence, Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 2773-2776.
  • Merryfield, W. J., 1998: Effects of stratification on quasi-geostrophic inviscid equilibria. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 354, 345-356.
  • Merryfield, W. J., and G. Holloway, 1997: Topographic stress parameterization in a quasi-geostrophic barotropic model. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 341, 1-18.
  • Merryfield, W. J., and G. Holloway, 1996: Inviscid quasi-geostrophic flow over topography: testing statistical mechanical theory. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 309, 85-91.

Research facility

Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Building, A203, 3800 Finnerty Rd
Victoria, BC V8W 3R4
Canada

Affiliations

Adjunct professor, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria

Member, Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society

Member, American Geophysical Union