Dr. Caihong Fu

Research Scientist

Dr. Caihong Fu’s research contributes to the Government of Canada's advancements in Ecosystem Approaches to Fisheries Management and supports the departmental Strategic Outcomes of providing economically prosperous maritime sectors and fisheries, and of ensuring sustainable aquatic ecosystems.

Her research focuses on developing and applying modelling tools that enhance understanding of aquatic ecosystems, including assessing the impacts of human activities. She has applied her modelling expertise to:

(1) develop marine ecosystem models to integrate species interactions, fisheries management, and climate change;

(2) introduce innovations to the fisheries assessment process that improve stakeholder understanding and confidence.

(3) develop statistical methods for analysing marine ecological, physical oceanographic, and commercial catch data to improve understanding of the impacts of external drivers on ecosystem structure and functioning;

(4) conduct technical stock assessments that quantitatively incorporate uncertainty.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Current research and/or projects

Dr. Fu academic training was in fish population dynamics and stock assessment. She is interested in understanding how climate changes, species interactions, and fishing affect the dynamics of fish populations and ecosystems and how fish populations should be managed under changing climate and ecological conditions.

Professional activities / interests

  • Ecosystem Modeling
  • Ecosystem Indicators
  • Ecosystem-based Approaches to Fisheries Management
  • Cumulative Effects on Ecosystem Structure and Functioning


Education and awards

Ph.D., Fisheries , University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2000

M.Sc., Hydrobiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, 1994

B.Sc., Fisheries Resources Management, Ocean University of China, 1991

International experience and/or work

 Dr. Fu collaborated with researchers from over 10 regions around the globe under the Comparative Analysis of Marine Ecosystem Organization (CAMEO). Since 2011, she has been working with international researchers from four continents on ecosystem indicators under the Indicators for the Seas project (IndiSeas).

Key publications

1. Quinn, T.J. II, C. Turnbell, and C. Fu. 1998.  A length-based population model for hard-to-age invertebrate populations. In Fishery Stock Assessment Models, pp. 531-556. Edited by F. Funk, T.J. Quinn II, J. Heifetz, J.N. Ianelli, J.E. Powers, J.F. Schweigert, P.J. Sullivan, and C.-I. Zhang. Alaska Sea Grant Report 98-01, University of Alaska Fairbanks.

2. Fu, C., Quinn, T.J. II, and M.D. Adkison. 1999. Retrospective projection using Monte Carlo simulation: An application of a length-based model to Kachemak Bay pink shrimp. In Ecosystem approaches for fisheries management, pp. 59-77. Alaska Sea Grant Report 99-01, University of Alaska Fairbanks.

3. Fu, C., and T.J. Quinn, II. 2000. Estimability of natural mortality and other population parameters in a length-based model: Pandalus borealis Krøyer in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57: 2420-2432.

4. Fu, C., T.J. Quinn, II and G.H. Kruse. 2000. Simulation analyses of harvest strategies for pandalid shrimp populations. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science, 27:247-260.     

5. Koeller, P., L. Savard, D.G. Parsons, and C. Fu. 2000. A Precautionary Approach to Assessment and Management of Shrimp Stocks in the Northwest Atlantic. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science, 27:235-246.

6. Fu, C., T.J. Quinn, II and T.C. Shirley. 2001. The role of sex change, growth and mortality in Pandalus population dynamics and management. ICES Journal of Marine Science 58: 607-621.

7. Fu, C., R. Mohn, and L.P. Fanning. 2001. What caused the decline of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks in the early 1990s off eastern Canada? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: 1613-1623.

8. Fu. C., C.C. Wood, and J. Schweigert. 2004. A generic framework for evaluating conservation limits and harvest strategies in fisheries management in Species Conservation and Management: Case Studies, (edited by H. R. Akçakaya, M.A. Burgman, O. Kindvall, C. Wood, P. Sjögren-Gulve, J. Hatfield, and M.A. McCarthy), Oxford University Press. pp. 256-259.

9.  Fu. C. and L. P. Fanning. 2004. Spatial considerations in the management of Atlantic cod off Nova Scotia, Canada. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24: 775-784.

10. Fu. C., J. Schweigert, and C. C. Wood. 2004. An evaluation of alternative age-structured models for risk assessment of Pacific herring stocks in British Columbia. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat. Research Document 2004/011.

11. Godbout, L., J.R. Irvine, C.C. Wood, C. Fu, G. Jamieson. 2004.  Critical Habitat Case Study – Sakinaw Lake Sockeye Salmon. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat. Research Document 2004/116.

12. Schweigert, J.F., Fu, C., Wood, C.C., and T.W. Therriault. 2007. A risk assessment framework for Pacific herring stocks in British Columbia. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat. Research Document 2007/047.

13. Godbout, L., Fu, C., and Irvine, J. 2008. Evaluation of chum salmon fishery performance using Ricker and Beverton Holt stock recruitment approaches in a Bayesian framework. Reconciling Fisheries with Conservation: Proceedings of the Fourth World Fisheries Congress, American Fisheries Society symposium 49: 1417-1434

14. Schweigert, J., Fu, C., and Wood C.C. 2008. A framework for evaluating conservation reference points and harvest strategies in Pacific herring. Reconciling Fisheries with Conservation: Proceedings of the Fourth World Fisheries Congress, American Fisheries Society symposium 49: 223-240.

15. Fu, C and D. Rutherford. 2009. Fish/shellfish community structure in Barkley Sound. Proceedings of the first Barkley Sound knowledge symposium.

16. Bryan, M., Fu, C, and G.D. Workman. 2010. Assemblages and distributions of groundfish species off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The Open Marine Biology Journal 4: 101-114.

17. Fu, C., Y.-J. Shin, R. I. Perry, J. King, H. Liu. 2012. Exploring climate and fishing impacts in an ecosystem framework. In G.H. Kruse, H.I. Browman, K.L. Cochrane, D. Evans, G.S. Jamieson, P.A. Livingston, D. Woodby, and C.I. Zhang (eds.), Global Progress in Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management. Alaska Sea Grant, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, doi:10.4027/gpebfm.2012.04

18. Shin, Y.-J., …..Fu, C., … 2012. Global in scope and regionally rich: an IndiSeas workshop helps shape the future of marine ecosystem indicators. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries,  DOI 10.1007/s11160-012-9252-z

19. Fu, C., S. Gaichas, J.S. Link, A. Bundy, J.L. Boldt, A.M. Cook, R. Gamble, K. R. Utne, H. Liu, K.D. Friedland. 2012.  Relative importance of fishing, trophodynamic and environmental drivers in a series of marine ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 459: 169-184. doi:10.3354/meps09805

20. Pranovi, F., J. Link, C. Fu, A. M. Cook, H. Liu,, S. Gaichas, K. Friedland, K. R. Utne, H. Benoit.  2012. Trophic-level determinants of biomass accumulation in marine ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 495: 185-201. doi:10.3354/meps09738

21. Gaichas, S.,  R. Gamble, M. Fogarty, H. Benoit, T. Essington, C. Fu, M. Koen-Alonso, J. Link. 2012. Assembly Rules for Aggregate-Species Production Models: Simulations in Support of Management Strategy Evaluation. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 495: 275-292. doi:10.3354/meps09650

22. Bundy, A., E.C. Bohaboy, D. O. Hjermann, F. Mueter, C. Fu, J. S. Link. 2012. Common patterns, common drivers: comparative analysis of aggregate surplus production across ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 495: 203-218. doi:10.3354/meps09787

23. Fu, C., R.I. Perry, Y.-J. Shin, J. Schweigert, H. Liu. 2013. An ecosystem modelling framework for incorporating climate regime shifts into fisheries management. Progress in Oceanography 115: 53-64.

24. Fu, C., Large, S., Knight, B., Richardson, A., Bundy, A., Reygondeau, G., Boldt, J., van der Meeren, G.I., Torres, M.A., Sobrino, I., Auber, A., Travers-Trolet, M., Piroddi, C., Diallo, I., Jouffre, D., Mendes, H., Borges, M.F., Lynam, C., Coll, M., Shannon, L.J., Shin , Y.J., 2015. Relationships among fisheries exploitation, environmental conditions, and ecological indicators across a series of marine ecosystems. Journal of Marine Systems, 148: 101-111

25. Marta, C., L. J. Shannon, K.M Kleisner, M.J Juan Jordà, A. Bundy, G. Akoglu, D. Banaru, J.L. Boldt, M.F. Borges, A. Cook, I. Diallo, C. Fu, C. Fox, D. Gascuel, L. J. Gurney, T. Hattab, J.J. Heymans, D. Jouffre, B.R. Knight, S Kucukavsar, S.I. Large, C. Lynam, A. Machias, K.N. Marshall, H. Masski, H. Ojaveer, C. Piroddi, J. Tam, D. Thiao, M. Thiaw, M.A. Torres, M. Traves-Trolet, K. Tsagarakis, I. Tuck, G.I. van der Meeren, D.G. Yemane, S.G. Zador, Y.-J. Shin. 2016. Ecological indicators to capture the effects of fishing on biodiversity and conservation status of marine ecosystems. Ecological Indicators, 60: 947-962.

26. Reed J, Shannon L, Velez L, Akoglu E, Bundy A, Coll M, Fu C, Fulton EA, Grüss A, Halouani G, Heymans JJ, Houle J, John E, Le Loc’h F, Salihoglu B, Verley P, Shin Y-J. 2016. Ecosystem indicators – accounting for variability in species’ trophic levels. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 74(1): 158  - 169.

27. Fu, C., Olsen, N., Taylor, N., Grüss, A., Batten, B., Liu, H., Verley, P., and Shin, Y.-J. 2017. Spatial and temporal dynamics of predator-prey species interactions off western Canada. ICES Journal of Marine Science. Doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx056

28 Oken KL, Essington TE, Fu C. 2018. Variability and stability in predation landscapes: a cross ecosystem comparison on the potential for predator control in temperate marine ecosystems. Fish and Fisheries, 19: 489-501.

 29 Pang Y, Tian Y, Fu C, Wang B, Li J, Ren Y, Wan R. 2018. Variability of coastal cephalopods in overexploited China Seas under climate change with implications on fisheries management. Fisheries Research, 208: 22-33. 

30 Fu C, Travers-Trolet M, Velez L, Grüss A, Bundy A, Shannon LJ,  Fulton EA, Akoglu E, Houle JE, Coll M, Verley P, Heymans JJ, John E , Shin Y-J. 2018. Risky business: the combined effects of fishing and changes in primary productivity on fish communities. Ecological Modelling, 368: 265–276.

31 Shin Y-J, Houle JE, Akoglu E, Blanchard J, Bundy A, Coll M, Demarcq H, Fu C, Fulton EA, Heymans JJ, Salihoglu B, Shannon L, Sporcic M, Velez L. 2018. The specificity of marine ecological indicators to fishing in the face of environmental change: a multi-model evaluation. Ecological Indicators, 89: 317-326

32 Ma S, Liu Y, Li J, Fu C, Ye Z, Sun P, Yu H, Cheng J, Tian Y. 2019. Climate-induced long-term variabilities in ecosystem structures of Yellow Sea and East China Sea and the atmosphere-ocean-ecosystem processProgress in oceanography 2019, 175: 183-197.

33 Liu S, Liu Y, Fu C, Yan L, Xu Y, Wan R, Li J, Tian Y. 2019. Using novel spawning ground indices to analyze the effects of climate change on Pacific saury. Journal of Marine Sciences, 191: 13-23.

34 Fu C, Xu Y, Bundy A, Grüss A, Coll M, Heymans JJ, Fulton EA, Shannon LJ,  Halouani G, Velez L, Akoglu E, Lynam CP, Shin Y-J. 2019. Making Ecological Indicators Management Ready: Assessing their ability to detect impacts of fishing and environmental change. Ecological Indicators, 105: 16-28.

35 Guo C, Fu C, Forrest R, Olsen N, Liu H, Verley P and Shin Y-J. 2019. Ecosystem-based reference points under varying plankton productivity states and fisheries management strategies. ICES Journal of Marine Science,doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsz120.

36 Sun P, Chen Q, Fu C, Zhu W, Li J, Zhang C, Yu H, Sun R, Xu Y, Tian Y. 2019. Daily growth of young-of-the-year largehead hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus) in relation to environmental variables in the East China Sea. Journal of Marine Systems,

37 Xu Y, Fu C, Peña A, Hourston R, Thomson R, Robinson C, Cleary J, Daniel K, Thompson M. ¬¬Variability of Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii) spawn abundance under climate change off the West Coast of Canada over the past six decades. Journal of Marine Systems,

38 Fu C, Xu Y, Grüss A, Bundy A, Shannon LJ, Heymans JJ, Halouani G, Akoglu E, Lynam CP, Coll M, Fulton EA, Velez L, Shin Y-J. Responses of ecological indicators to fishing pressure under environmental change: Nonlinearity and threshold. ICES Journal of Marine Science,