Antoinette Ludwig

Image Antoinette Ludwig
Research Scientist

Research focusing on zoonotic illness

Current research and/or projects

Dr. Ludwig works with the Public Health Risk Sciences division from the Infectious Diseases Control and Prevention Branch.

Dr. Ludwig’s research focuses on identifying zoonotic disease and modelling environmental determinants of disease vectors that present a danger to public health. She specializes in modelling zoonotic vectors transmitted by insects; and works on West Nile virus and other diseases transmitted by mosquitos and ticks, notably as they relate to climate change.

Research and/or project statements

  • Scientific leadership on multiple stakeholder research projects including:

    • Modeling the combined effect of Land-Use Changes and Climate Changes on mosquito and bird biodiversity in Eastern Ontario, West Nile virus strain characterization in Eastern Canada, and Blood meal analysis of West Nile virus vectors in southern Québec

  • Scientific leadership in surveillance projects development, maintenance, data analysis and data reporting—these include:

    • scientific advisor for the provincial surveillance program for mosquito-borne diseases

    • scientific advisor for vector surveillance and modelling working group at national and international level

    • manager for data validation and analysis in the Canadian Surveillance Program for Anti-Microbial resistance

  • Research collaboration with Canadian surveillance agencies, centres, and Federal Research groups.

  • Epidemiological analysis and modelling, some examples include:

    • Modelling the geographical dispersion of Amblyomma americanum in North America according to climate changes.

    • Studying the combined effect of land use changes and climate changes on the risk of human exposure to mosquito borne diseases and mapping vulnerable human populations using remote sensing data.

    • A scoping review of mosquito determinants related to vector potential for some viruses transmitted in Canada

    • Relationship between mosquito infection and bird infection for West Nile virus and Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus in Ottawa region

    • Characterizing the Canadian West Nile virus strains diversity using the Whole Genome sequencing approach

Professional activities / interests

Supervises undergraduate, masters and PhD students

Member of NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) Mosquito Technical Working Group

Participant in internal committees as a scientific advisor (CPHLN, Surveillance Integration Team).

Participant in an external scientific committee as scientific advisor (Québec’s advisory group for mosquito borne diseases, Observatoire multipartite québécois sur les zoonoses et l’adaptation aux changements climatiques)

Education and awards


Post-Doctoral Fellow in zoonosis epidemiology and public health, University of Montreal, 2009

PhD Veterinary Science Epidemiology, Faculté de medicine veterinaries, University of Montreal, 2009

MSc Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France, 2004

DVM Equine medicine and surgery, École Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon (France), 2001


GRDI Funds , titre : Mosquito borne diseases surveillance by metagenomics in Canada. Chercheur principal: Nick Ogden, Total: CAN$ 578.10K pour 3 ans – début : Février 2019; participation comme chercheur collaborateur.

AAFC special funds, titre : Environmental Change One health Observatory (ECO2): A framework for  sustainable and resilient ecological goods and services for agro-ecosystems, from the microbiome to the river basin scale. Chercheur principal: David Lapen, Total: CAN$ 760K pour 3 ans – Début: Avril 2019, participation comme chercheur collaborateur

Special funds for the writing of research proposal from Institut National de Santé publique du Québec, titre : WNV outbreak determinants in southern Quebec. Chercheur principal : Antoinette Ludwig, Total : CAN$13,000.00, Avril 2015.

International experience and/or work

Expert member of GT Vecteur ANSES (Agence Nationale de la sécurité sanitaire  de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail)

Key publications

Johanna FITE, Thierry BALDET, Antoinette LUDWIG, Sylvie MANGUIN, Claude SAEGERMAN, Frederic SIMARD, Philippe QUENEL, A One Health approach for Integrated Vector Management monitoring and evaluation, Scientific Reports, in writing

Miarisoa Rindra RakotoariniaF. Guillaume Blanchet, David R. Lapen, Patrick A. Leighton, Nicholas H. Ogden, Ana Margarita Llerena Enjamio, Antoinette Ludwig, 2024, Decline in Culex pipiens-restuans populations and changes in mosquito diversity in eastern Ontario in response to climate and land use changes, GeoHealth, in writing

Benoit Talbot, Antoinette Ludwig, Sheila O’Brien, Steven Drews, Maxime Rioux-Rousseau, Nick Ogden Manisha Kulkarni, Spatiotemporal analysis of WNV infection in the human population based on arboviral detection testing of blood donations, 2024, in writing

Baki Cisse, David R. Lapen, K. Chalvet-Monfray, Nicholas H. Ogden; Antoinette Ludwig, West Nile virus transmission in Canada: study of the amplification condition using cellular automata approach, 2024, in writing

Colton Stephens, Gregory Mitchell, Antoinette Ludwig, Scott Wilson, Jessica Forest, Mark Forbes, Effects of an urban to rural gradient, seasonality and year on West Nile and Eastern Equine Encephalitis prevalence in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), in writing

Maria Elizabeth Mitri, Antoinette Ludwig, Salima Gasmi, Mandy Whitlock, Annie-Claude Bourgeois,  A descriptive and spatial analysis of hospitalized patients diagnosed with mosquito-borne arboviruses in Canada, 2002-2021, Plos One – in writing

Bouchra Bakhiyi, Alejandra Irace-Cima, Antoinette Ludwig, Miarisoa Rindra Rakotoarinia, Christian Therrien, Isabelle Dusfour, Ariane Adam-Poupart, Contributions à la santé publique de la surveillance entomologique du virus du Nil occidental (VNO) et autres arbovirus transmis par les moustiques dans un contexte de changements climatiques, 2024, Canadian Communicable Disease Report, accepted

Baki Cisse, David R. Lapen, K. Chalvet-Monfray, Nicholas H. Ogden; Antoinette Ludwig, Modeling West Nile virus transmission in birds and humans: advantages of using a cellular automata approach, 2024, Infectious Disease Modelling Vol. 9 Issue 1 Pages 278-297

Marc Avramov. Vanessa Gallo, Antonia Gross, David R. Lapen, Antoinette Ludwig, Catherine I. Cullingham, 2024, A cost-effective RNA extraction and RT-PCR approach to detect California serogroup viruses from pooled mosquito samples, Sci Rep 14, 2339.

Colton Stephens, Gregory Mitchell, Antoinette Ludwig, Scott Wilson, Jessica Forest, Mark Forbes, Mosquito feeding patterns reveals a possible role of mammals and urban environments as potential amplifiers of West Nile virus and Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus in Eastern Ontario, Canada, PlosOne, under review

Michele Bergevin; Victoria Ng; Antoinette Ludwig, Tara Sadeghieh, Paula Menzies;; Samira Mubareka; Katie M Clow; 2024, A Scoping Review on the Epidemiology of Orthobunyaviruses of Canadian Public and Animal Health Relevance in the Context of Vector Species, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2023.0152

Michele Bergevin; Victoria Ng; Tara Sadeghieh, Paula Menzies; Antoinette Ludwig; Samira Mubareka; Katie M Clow; 2024, A scoping review on the epidemiology of Orthobunyaviruses endemic to, or emerging in Canada, in the context of Human, Wildlife, and Domestic Animal Host Species, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2024 Jan 11. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2023.0109. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38206763.

Benoit Talbot, Manisha Kulkarni, Nick Ogden, Antoinette Ludwig, Ecological niche and positive clusters of two West Nile virus vectors in Ontario, Canada, 2023, Ecohealth, 2023 Nov 20. doi: 10.1007/s10393-023-01653-8

Michele Bergevin; Victoria Ng; Paula Menzies; Antoinette Ludwig; Samira Mubareka; Katie M Clow; 2023, Cache a Killer: Cache Valley virus seropositivity and associated farm management risk factors in sheep in Ontario, Canada, PLOS One , Vol18 Issue 8 Pages e0290443

Ludwig A., Rousseu F., Kotchi S-O, Allostry J, Fournier R., 2023,  Mapping the abundance of endemic mosquito-borne diseases vectors in southern Quebec– BMC Public Health 23, 924.

Miarisoa Rindra Rakotoarinia, Ousmane Seidou, David R. Lapen, Patrick A. Leighton, Nicholas H. Ogden, Antoinette Ludwig, 2023, Future land use change predictions using Dyna-Clue to support mosquito-borne disease risk assessment, Environ Monit Assess 195, 815 (2023).

Avramov, Ma., Thaivalappil, A., Ludwig, A., Miner, L., Cullingham, C., Waddel, L., Lapen D., Relationships between water quality and mosquito presence and abundance: A systematic review and meta-analysis, 2023,  J. Med. Entomolo. 2023 Oct 13:tjad139. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjad139

Ducrocq J, Forest-Bérard K, Ouhoummane N, Laouan Sidi E, Ludwig A, Irace-Cima A. A meteorological-based forecasting model for predicting minimal infection rates in Culex pipiens-restuans complex using Québec’s West Nile virus integrated surveillance system. Can Commun Dis Rep 2022;48(5):196–207.

Rakotoarinia MR, Blanchet FG, Gravel D, Lapen DR, Leighton PA, Nicholas H. Ogden, and Antoinette Ludwig (2022) Effects of land use and weather on the presence and abundance of mosquito-borne disease vectors in a urban and agricultural landscape in Eastern Ontario, Canada. PLOS ONE 17(3): e0262376.

Moua, Y., S. O. Kotchi, Ludwig A., Brazeau S. (2021). "Mapping the Habitat Suitability of West Nile Virus Vectors in Southern Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Canada, with Species Distribution Modeling and Satellite Earth Observation Data." Remote Sensing 13: 1637.

Lowe Anne-Marie, Forest-Bérard K., Trudel R., (…) Lindsay R., Ludwig A. Using surrogate species to assess the potential entry points of invasive Aedes species mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Québec (Canada) - Transboundary and Emerging diseases. In writing

Ludivine Taieb, Antoinette Ludwig, L. Robbin Lindsay, Mahmood Iranpour, Carl A. Gagnon, Dominique J. Bicout. Bird species involved in West Nile virus epidemiological cycle in southern, EcoHealth, Submitted

Sagurova I, Ludwig A., Ogden N., Pelcat Y., Dueymes G., Gachon P., 2019, Predicted northward expansion of the geographic range of the tick vector Amblyomma americanum in North America under future climate conditions, Environmental Health Perspectives 127 (10) CID: 107014.

Christian Therrien, Eric Fournier, Antoinette Ludwig, Joel Ménard, Hugues Charest, Christine Martineau, 2019, Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus in Quebec, Canada, 2004–2016: Co-circulation of distinct variants harbouring conserved amino acid motifs in North America. Virology 537: 65-73.

Ludwig Antoinette, Zheng Hhui, Vrbova Linda, Drebot Michael, Iranpour Mahmood, Lindsay Robbin, 2019. Increased risk of endemic mosquito-borne diseases in Canada due to climate change, Canada Communicable Disease Report 45(4) 90-97    

NH Ogden, A Ludwig, AP Morse, H Zheng, H Zhu, 2019, Weather-based forecasting of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks in Canada, Canada Communicable Disease Report 45(5): 127–132.

Kotchi SO, Bouchard C, Ludwig A, Rees EE, Brazeau S., 2019,  Using Earth observation images to inform risk assessment and mapping of climate change-related infectious diseases,  Can Commun Dis Rep, 45(5):133–42.

Marion Ripoche, Céline Campagna, Antoinette Ludwig, Nicholas H Ogden, Patrick A Leighton. Short-term Forecasting of Daily Abundance of West Nile Virus Vectors Culex pipiens-restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes vexans Based on Weather Conditions in Southern Québec (Canada), Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 56, Issue 3, May 2019, p. 859–872.

Marion Ripoche*, Salima Gasmi*, Ariane Adam-Poupart, Jules K. Koffi, L. Robbin Lindsay, Antoinette Ludwig, François Milord, Nicholas H. Ogden, Karine Thivierge, Patrick A. Leighton. Passive tick surveillance provides an accurate early signal of emerging Lyme disease risk and human cases in southern Canada, 2018,  J Med Entomology, 28;55(4):1016-1026.

Research facility

3200 rue Sicotte, C.P. 5000
St. Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2


Adjunct Professor, Pathology and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal

Habilitation to direct memoirs and theses, Population Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Guelph

Habilitation to direct memoirs and theses, Geomatic, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, University of Sherbrooke